Thor I. Fossen
|Born||January 3, 1963|
|Fields||Guidance system, navigation, control theory|
|Institutions||Norwegian University of Science and Technology|
Thor Inge Fossen (born January 3, 1963) is a Norwegian naval architect and a cyberneticist. Fossen received the MTech degree in Marine Technology (1987) and PhD in Engineering Cybernetics (1991) both from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU). He is a Fulbright alumni and he pursued postgraduate studies in Aerodynamics and Aeronautics at the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics of the University of Washington, Seattle (1989-1990). At age 28 he was appointed associated professor of guidance, navigation and control at NTNU and two years later he qualified as full professor. He has been elected member of the Norwegian Academy of Technological Sciences since 1998 and elevated to IEEE Fellow (2016) for his contributions to modeling and controlling of marine craft. Fossen is one of the founders of the company Marine Cybernetics (2002), which was acquired by DNV GL in 2014. He is co-founder of the company SCOUT Drone Inspection AS (2017) and he is involved in several new high-tech companies in Trondheim. He is currently co-director of the NTNU Center for Autonomous Marine Operations and Systems. He has made contributions in the areas of marine craft motion control systems, hydrodynamics, nonlinear control, guidance systems navigation.
Fossen's field of research is control theory and marine hydrodynamics. He has published more than 350 papers on guidance, navigation and control (GNC), vehicle dynamics, and control systems for ships, underwater vehicles and unmanned vehicles. He has authored three textbooks. The first textbookhas become the standard reference in marine control systems. This book was followed up by two textbooks and. The mathematical models for marine craft GNC systems are based on a robot-inspired model representation first published in 1991 by NTNU. Fossen's ocean vehicle models have become a standard for marine craft motion control systems. In addition to the three textbooks, Fossen has co-authored three editorials , and
Naval architecture, or naval engineering, along with automotive engineering and aerospace engineering, is an engineering discipline branch of vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safety engineering as applied to the engineering design process, shipbuilding, maintenance, and operation of marine vessels and structures. Naval architecture involves basic and applied research, design, development, design evaluation (classification) and calculations during all stages of the life of a marine vehicle. Preliminary design of the vessel, its detailed design, construction, trials, operation and maintenance, launching and dry-docking are the main activities involved. Ship design calculations are also required for ships being modified. Naval architecture also involves formulation of safety regulations and damage-control rules and the approval and certification of ship designs to meet statutory and non-statutory requirements.
The Norwegian University of Science and Technology is a public research university in Norway with the main campus in Trondheim and smaller campuses in Gjøvik and Ålesund. The largest university in Norway, NTNU has over 8,000 employees and over 40,000 students. NTNU in its current form was established by the King-in-Council in 1996 by the merger of the former University of Trondheim and other university-level institutions, with roots dating back to 1760, and has later also incorporated some former university colleges. NTNU is consistently ranked in the top one percentage among the world's universities, usually in the 101–400 range depending on ranking.
The Norwegian Institute of Technology was a science institute in Trondheim, Norway. It was established in 1910, and existed as an independent technical university for 58 years, after which it was merged into the University of Trondheim as an independent college.
A guidance system is a virtual or physical device, or a group of devices implementing a guidance process used for controlling the movement of a ship, aircraft, missile, rocket, satellite, or any other moving object. Guidance is the process of calculating the changes in position, velocity, attitude, and/or rotation rates of a moving object required to follow a certain trajectory and/or attitude profile based on information about the object's state of motion.
A micro air vehicle (MAV), or micro aerial vehicle, is a class of miniature UAVs that has a size restriction and may be autonomous. Modern craft can be as small as 5 centimeters. Development is driven by commercial, research, government, and military purposes; with insect-sized aircraft reportedly expected in the future. The small craft allows remote observation of hazardous environments inaccessible to ground vehicles. MAVs have been built for hobby purposes, such as aerial robotics contests and aerial photography.
An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is a robot that travels underwater without requiring input from an operator. AUVs constitute part of a larger group of undersea systems known as unmanned underwater vehicles, a classification that includes non-autonomous remotely operated underwater vehicles (ROVs) – controlled and powered from the surface by an operator/pilot via an umbilical or using remote control. In military applications an AUV is more often referred to as an unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV). Underwater gliders are a subclass of AUVs.
Flight controllers are personnel who aid space flight by working in such Mission Control Centers as NASA's Mission Control Center or ESA's European Space Operations Centre. Flight controllers work at computer consoles and use telemetry to monitor various technical aspects of a space mission in real time. Each controller is an expert in a specific area and constantly communicates with additional experts in the "back room". The flight director, who leads the flight controllers, monitors the activities of a team of flight controllers, and has overall responsibility for success and safety.
Unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV), sometimes known as underwater drones, are any vehicles that are able to operate underwater without a human occupant. These vehicles may be divided into the two categories of remotely operated underwater vehicles (ROUVs), which are controlled by a remote human operator, and autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), which operate independently of direct human input. Sometimes only vehicles in the second category are considered a kind of robot, but those in the first category are also robots similar to surgical robots, which also mostly require an operator.
Kongsberg Maritime (KM) is a Norwegian technology enterprise within the Kongsberg Gruppen (KOG). Kongsberg Maritime deliver systems for positioning, surveying, navigation and automation to merchant vessels and offshore installations. Their most well known products exist within dynamic positioning systems, marine automation and surveillance systems, process automation, satellite navigation and hydroacoustics.
In fluid dynamics and elasticity, hydroelasticity or flexible fluid-structure interaction (FSI), is a branch of science which is concerned with the motion of deformable bodies through liquids. The theory of hydroelasticity has been adapted from aeroelasticity, to describe the effect of structural response of the body on the fluid around it.
The Naval Science and Technological Laboratory (NSTL) is an Indian defence laboratory of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO). Located in Visakhapatnam (Vizag), its main function is the research and development of underwater weapons and associated systems. NSTL is organized under DRDO's Directorate of Naval R&D. The present director of NSTL is Dr O R Nandagopan and Chief Controller(CC) is Dr. V. Bhujanga Rao, Distinguished Scientist.
Guidance, navigation and control is a branch of engineering dealing with the design of systems to control the movement of vehicles, especially, automobiles, ships, aircraft, and spacecraft. In many cases these functions can be performed by trained humans. However, because of the speed of, for example, a rocket's dynamics, human reaction time is too slow to control this movement. Therefore, systems—now almost exclusively digital electronic—are used for such control. Even in cases where humans can perform these functions, it is often the case that GNC systems provide benefits such as alleviating operator work load, smoothing turbulence, fuel savings, etc. In addition, sophisticated applications of GNC enable automatic or remote control.
A satellite bus or spacecraft bus is a general model on which multiple-production satellite spacecraft are often based. The bus is the infrastructure of the spacecraft, usually providing locations for the payload.
A short baseline (SBL) acoustic positioning system is one of three broad classes of underwater acoustic positioning systems that are used to track underwater vehicles and divers. The other two classes are ultra short baseline systems (USBL) and long baseline systems (LBL). Like USBL systems, SBL systems do not require any seafloor mounted transponders or equipment and are thus suitable for tracking underwater targets from boats or ships that are either anchored or under way. However, unlike USBL systems, which offer a fixed accuracy, SBL positioning accuracy improves with transducer spacing. Thus, where space permits, such as when operating from larger vessels or a dock, the SBL system can achieve a precision and position robustness that is similar to that of sea floor mounted LBL systems, making the system suitable for high-accuracy survey work. When operating from a smaller vessel where transducer spacing is limited, the SBL system will exhibit reduced precision.
Odd Magnus Faltinsen is a Norwegian mathematician and professor of marine technology.
Edwin Niblock Lightfoot Jr. was an American chemical engineer and Hilldale Professor Emeritus in the Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He is known for his research in transport phenomena, including biological mass-transfer processes, mass-transport reaction modeling, and separations processes. He, along with R. Byron Bird and Warren E. Stewart, co-authored the classic textbook Transport Phenomena. In 1974 Lightfoot wrote Transport Phenomena and Living Systems: Biomedical Aspects of Momentum and Mass Transport. Lightfoot was the recipient of the 2004 National Medal of Science in Engineering Sciences.
Attitude control is the process of controlling the orientation of an aerospace vehicle with respect to an inertial frame of reference or another entity such as the celestial sphere, certain fields, and nearby objects, etc.
An inertial measurement unit (IMU) is an electronic device that measures and reports a body's specific force, angular rate, and sometimes the orientation of the body, using a combination of accelerometers, gyroscopes, and sometimes magnetometers. IMUs are typically used to maneuver aircraft, including unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), among many others, and spacecraft, including satellites and landers. Recent developments allow for the production of IMU-enabled GPS devices. An IMU allows a GPS receiver to work when GPS-signals are unavailable, such as in tunnels, inside buildings, or when electronic interference is present. A wireless IMU is known as a WIMU.
Isaac Michael Ross is a Distinguished Professor and Program Director of Control and Optimization at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, CA. He has published papers in pseudospectral optimal control theory, energy-sink theory, the optimization and deflection of near-Earth asteroids and comets, robotics, attitude dynamics and control, real-time optimal control unscented optimal control and a textbook on optimal control. The Kang-Ross-Gong theorem, Ross' π lemma, Ross' time constant, the Ross–Fahroo lemma, and the Ross–Fahroo pseudospectral method are all named after him.
The following index is provided as an overview of and topical guide to underwater diving: