The Three Blaze Trail is an Historic Trail constructed in 1902 in Idaho, United States.The trail was located and constructed by William Stonebreaker, William Campbell, Harry Donohue, and August Hotzel as a "shortcut" route from Dixie, Idaho, to the Thunder Mountain mining area in central Idaho. The Three Blaze Trail and the Thunder Mountain mining district lie within the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness. While there were already at least four existing routes into Thunder Mountain, the local miners and business men of the area raised $3,000 and contracted the four builders to locate and construct the shorter route.
Idaho is a state in the northwestern region of the United States. It borders the state of Montana to the east and northeast, Wyoming to the east, Nevada and Utah to the south, and Washington and Oregon to the west. To the north, it shares a small portion of the Canadian border with the province of British Columbia. With a population of approximately 1.7 million and an area of 83,569 square miles (216,440 km2), Idaho is the 14th largest, the 12th least populous and the 7th least densely populated of the 50 U.S. states. The state's capital and largest city is Boise.
Dixie is an unincorporated community in Idaho County, Idaho, United States, located 43 miles (69 km) east-northeast of Riggins. Dixie was an important gateway to the Thunder Mountain Mines of Idaho during the early 1900s when Dixie was on the northern terminus of the Three Blaze Trail, a shortcut route to the mines via Campbell's Ferry, and what is now the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness, Chamberlain Basin, and southward to the mining community of Roosevelt, located on Monumental Creek.
The Frank Church—River of No Return Wilderness Area is a protected wilderness area in Idaho. It was created in 1980 by the United States Congress and renamed in 1984 as the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness Area in honor of U.S. Senator Frank Church.
The Three Blaze Trail has been studied and determined to be included as a "trail of historical significance" by the United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, planning process. Environmental Impact Statements continue to list the trail as an object of concern that requires evaluation and consideration of its heritage and its historic value.This trail, constructed in 1902 has historical, recreational, health, and scenic values which may qualify it for the designation of either a National Recreation Trail (NRT) or National Historic Trail as defined by the National Trail System Act.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food. It aims to meet the needs of farmers and ranchers, promote agricultural trade and production, work to assure food safety, protect natural resources, foster rural communities and end hunger in the United States and internationally.
The United States Forest Service (USFS) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass 193 million acres (780,000 km2). Major divisions of the agency include the National Forest System, State and Private Forestry, Business Operations, and the Research and Development branch. Managing approximately 25% of federal lands, it is the only major national land agency that is outside the U.S. Department of the Interior.
An environmental impact statement (EIS), under United States environmental law, is a document required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for certain actions "significantly affecting the quality of the human environment". An EIS is a tool for decision making. It describes the positive and negative environmental effects of a proposed action, and it usually also lists one or more alternative actions that may be chosen instead of the action described in the EIS. Several U.S. state governments require that a document similar to an EIS be submitted to the state for certain actions. For example, in California, an Environmental Impact Report (EIR) must be submitted to the state for certain actions, as described in the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA). One of the primary authors of the act is Lynton K. Caldwell.(American political scientist)
The route to the Thunder Mountain Mines began at Grangeville, Idaho, and progressed to Dixie, Idaho, on a previously established (by 1901) wagon route.By 1894 the section of the route from Grangeville to Elk City was an improved wagon road. From Dixie, the route followed an existing trail to the Salmon River, a distance of about 12 miles, and intersected the Salmon River at Campbell's Ferry, which was established near the mouth of Trout Creek. This section of the trail is currently part of the Nez Perce National Forest Trail System, Trail Number 231, which begins near the Dillinger Mine Trail Head, down Rhett Creek, over the ridge near Rock Rabbit Point, and then down to the Salmon River.
Grangeville is the largest city in and the county seat of Idaho County, Idaho, United States, in the north central part of the state. Its population was 3,141 at the 2010 census, down from 3,228 in 2000.
The Salmon River is located in Idaho in the northwestern United States. The Salmon is also known as "The River of No Return". It flows for 425 miles (685 km) through central Idaho, draining a rugged, thinly populated watershed of 14,000 square miles (36,000 km2) and dropping more than 7,000 feet (2,100 m) between its headwaters, near Galena Summit above the Sawtooth Valley in the Sawtooth National Recreation Area, and its confluence with the Snake River. Measured at White Bird, its average discharge is 11,060 cubic feet per second. It is one of the largest rivers in the continental United States without a single dam on its mainstem.
Campbell's Ferry was a ferry crossing on the Salmon River, located at Mile 148 of the river in the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness. The ferry was part of the Three Blaze Trail, which connected Grangeville to Dixie, Idaho, to the Monumental Creek Trail at Thunder Mountain. William Campbell established the trail and ferry in 1898, as well the Campbell's Ferry Ranch on the south bank of the river; Campbell was also the ferry's first operator. Campbell disappeared and was presumed dead in the winter of 1902-03, and the ranch and ferry passed through a succession of owners until Joe and Emma Zaunmiller acquired the property. Emma died in 1938 in a horseback riding accident, and Joe eventually married ranch hand Lydia Frances Coyle. Frances successfully promoted the construction of a bridge to replace the ferry crossing, which was completed in 1956; the couple ceremonially let the ferryboat float away downriver.
The newly constructed (1902) Three Blaze "shortcut" Trail was located and marked with three distinctive blazes, or marks, cut on the trees, usually with and axe, to signify this specific route.
Three blazes were used, which was different than the common two blaze system used by the U.S. Forest Service. The two-blaze system consisted of a lower 8 inch-long dash with an upper short dot above as explained in "Trail Construction of the National Forests", U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington Government Printing Office, 1915.The two blaze dot and dash was the more common method to blaze trees as used by the U.S. Forest Service to mark trails until discontinued in the 1980s. The Three Blaze Trail is now part of the National Forest Service Trail System, part of which are numbered Trails 017 and 006, on the Payette National Forest. The trail is no longer maintained as demonstrated by the photo showing the trail clogged with downed timber.
The Payette National Forest is a U.S. National Forest located in central western Idaho, in parts of Valley, Idaho, Adams, and Washington counties. The land area consists of approximately 2.3 million acres (9,300 km2) of federally managed lands. It is bordered by Hells Canyon National Recreation Area and the Hells Canyon to the west, Salmon-Challis National Forest to the east, Boise National Forest to the south, and the Nez Perce National Forest to the north. The Payette National Forest is a part of the Intermountain Region. It is under the jurisdiction of a forest supervisor in McCall and is divided into five ranger districts: McCall, Krassel, New Meadows, Council, and Weiser.
The Three Blaze Trail began at Campbell's Ferry, near the mouth of Trout Creek, traversed up the ridge near Little Trout Creek to Wet Meadows, then follows the Highline Ridge to Upper Trout Creek Meadows. From Upper Trout Creek Meadows the trail dropped into Chamberlain Creek at the mouth of Moose Creek. From Moose Creek the Three Blaze Trail went to Moose Jaw Meadow, then climbed the slope towards the head of Lodgepole Creek and the top of Ramey Ridge. From near Hand Meadows, the trail followed Ramey Ridge southward, past Rock Rabbit Point, Dead Mule Peak, Ramey Spring, to Ramey Point. From Ramey Point, the trail followed the ridge-line and switched-backed down the steep slope to Copper Camp, on Big Creek, the southern terminus of the Three Blaze Trail (route taken from U.S. Forest Service maps and "CCC in Idaho Collection, Digital Initiatives, University of Idaho Library, William Allen Stonebreaker, Chamberlain Basin ranch".The total distance of the Three Blaze Trail is 41 miles.
The route from Copper Camp on Big Creek to the Thunder Mountain Mining area continued to follow an existing trail down Big Creek, from near the mouth of Copper Creek, downstream about 4 miles to Monumental Creek, then up-stream on Monumental Creek about 20 miles to the Thunder Mountain Mining area, and Roosevelt, Idaho.The total length of the route from Dixie, Idaho, to the Thunder Mountain Mining Area is 85 miles, as shown on Peter Preston's Three Blaze Trail vicinity map.
Idaho Centennial Trail:
The Idaho Centennial Trail, designated in 1990, traverses Idaho on a north/south route totaling about 900 miles. A very small portion of that designated trail, from Campbell's Ferry to Wet Meadows/Shake Cabin, follows the Three Blaze Trail.
Trout Creek By-pass:
A Forest Service map (the date of which needs to be confirmed) shows a trail from Campbell's Ferry up Trout Creek to Shake Cabin. Shake Cabin, which was located at Wet Meadows, no longer exists (as of 2018).
The Henry M. Jackson Wilderness is a 103,297-acre (41,803 ha) designated wilderness area in the state of Washington, United States. The area lies adjacent to the southwest corner of the Glacier Peak Wilderness, northwest of Stevens Pass on U.S. Highway 2 and northeast of the town of Skykomish, Washington. Wild Sky Wilderness is located immediately southwest of the Henry M. Jackson Wilderness. While the wilderness straddles the Cascade Mountain Range, most of it is in the westside ecotype. The wilderness lies in parts of Snoqualmie, Mount Baker, and Wenatchee national forests.
The Hells Canyon Wilderness is a wilderness area in the western United States, in Idaho and Oregon. Created 44 years ago in 1975, the Wilderness is managed by both the U.S. Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Forest Service and contains some of the most spectacular sections of the Snake River as it winds its way through Hells Canyon, North America's deepest river gorge and one of the deepest gorges on Earth. The Oregon Wilderness Act of 1984 added additional acreage and currently the area protects a total area of 217,927 acres (88,192 ha). It lies entirely within the Hells Canyon National Recreation Area except for a small 946-acre (383 ha) plot in southeastern Wallowa County, Oregon which is administered by the Bureau of Land Management. The area that is administered by the Forest Service consists of portions of the Wallowa, Nez Perce, Payette, and Whitman National Forests.
Box-Death Hollow Wilderness is a 25,751 acres (104 km2) wilderness area located in south-central Utah, United States, on the Dixie National Forest. Vertical gray-orange walls of Navajo sandstone stand above two canyon tributaries of the Escalante River in Box-Death Hollow. The name Death Hollow gives reference to a number of livestock that plunged to their death trying to cross the steep canyon.
The Red Buttes Wilderness is a wilderness area in the Klamath and Rogue River national forests in the U.S. states of Oregon and California. It comprises 19,940 acres (8,070 ha), approximately 16,190 acres (6,550 ha) of which is located in California, and 3,750 acres (1,520 ha) in Oregon. It was established by the California Wilderness Act of 1984 and the Oregon Wilderness Act of 1984.
The Mount Washington Wilderness is a wilderness area located on and around Mount Washington in the central Cascade Range of Oregon in the United States. The wilderness was established in 1964 and comprises 54,278 acres (219.66 km2) of the Willamette National Forest and Deschutes National Forest. It is administered by the U.S. Forest Service.
The Snow Mountain Wilderness is a 60,076-acre (243.12 km2) federally designated wilderness area located 65 miles (105 km) north of Santa Rosa, California, USA in the Mendocino National Forest. The U.S. Congress passed the California Wilderness Act of 1984 which created 23 new wilderness areas including Snow Mountain. It lies within the North Coast Range of mountains.
The Domeland Wilderness is a federally designated wilderness area located 55 miles (89 km) northeast of Bakersfield, California USA. It encompasses 130,081 acres (526.42 km2), is jointly managed by the U.S. Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and is mostly within the Sequoia National Forest.
The Golden Trout Wilderness is a federally designated wilderness area in the Sierra Nevada, in Tulare County and Inyo County, California. It is located 40 miles (64 km) east of Porterville, California within Inyo National Forest and Sequoia National Forest.
The 900-mile (1,448 km) Idaho Centennial Trail (ICT) is a scenic trail through Idaho. It winds its way through various ecosystems from high desert canyonlands in southern Idaho to wet mountain forests in Northern Idaho. ICT travelers will cross many mountains, streams and rivers in between.
The Mount Adams Recreation Area is a 21,000-acre (8,500 ha) recreation area in the U.S. state of Washington managed by the Yakama Nation Wildlife Program. The area encompasses an ecologically complex and geologically active landscape. The region features the most rugged side of Mount Adams, including canyons and the Great Gap section of the Mount Adams circumnavigation route, a three-mile trail-less section over two great canyons and many difficult glacial creeks. At 12,276 feet (3,742 m), Mount Adams is one of the major Cascade mountains. The recreation area is on the east side of the mountain and is part of the Yakama Indian Reservation and includes the popular Bird Creek Meadows area.
Brush Mountain East Wilderness is a U.S. wilderness area in the Eastern Divide Ranger District of the George Washington and Jefferson National Forests. It was designated as wilderness area in 2009 by Omnibus Public Land Management Act of 2009.
The Jim Moore Place in Salmon River Canyon near Dixie in Idaho County, Idaho dates from 1898, when Jim Moore and C. E. Churchill built the first house there. The house and eight other buildings which followed in the next 15 years were log buildings, with logs hewn by broad axe. There was also a root cellar, an orchard, and agricultural fields.
White Oak Ridge-Terrapin Mountain is a wildland in the George Washington and Jefferson National Forests of western Virginia that has been recognized by the Wilderness Society as a special place worthy of protection from logging and road construction. With over 1200 acres of possible old growth forest, this is a rugged area with a rich diversity of geology and plant life.
North Creek is a wildland in the George Washington and Jefferson National Forests of western Virginia that has been recognized by the Wilderness Society as a special place worthy of protection from logging and road construction. Tall evergreen and hardwood trees in the area around Apple Orchard Falls tower above ferns and wildflowers. The area includes a valley which extends from Sunset Fields in the east to its western border near the North Creek Camping Area.
James River Face Wilderness Addition is a wildland in the George Washington and Jefferson National Forests of western Virginia that has been recognized by the Wilderness Society as a special place worthy of protection from logging and road construction. Adjacent to the James River Face Wilderness, it extends the wildland opportunities of the wilderness on the east to the Jefferson National Forest boundary. The area, managed for bear, has hardwood forests with ages between 60 and almost 100 years.
Cove Mountain is a wildland in the George Washington and Jefferson National Forests of western Virginia that has been recognized by the Wilderness Society as a special place worthy of protection from logging and road construction.
Shaw Gap is a wildland in the George Washington and Jefferson National Forests of western Virginia that has been recognized by the Wilderness Society as a special place worthy of protection from logging and road construction. The Wilderness Society has designated the area as a “Mountain Treasure”.