The Three Brothers underway
|Namesake:||William, James and Thomas White|
|Builder:||Milwaukee Shipyard Company|
|Fate:||Ran aground 27 September 1911; later sunk.|
|Length:||162 ft (49 m)|
|Beam:||31.4 ft (9.6 m)|
|Draft:||11.8 ft (3.6 m)|
|Installed power:||Steeple compound steam engine 280 horsepower (210 kW)|
|Capacity:||530,000 bd ft (1,300 m3)|
Three Brothers was a small wooden Great Lakes lumber freighter built in 1888 by the Milwaukee Shipyard Company of Milwaukee, Wisconsin for the Chicago-based John Spry Lumber Company. Originally she was christened as the May Durr and bearing the official number 91998. The vessel was rated at 582 gross tons, 444 net tons, and measured 162 feet (49 m) in length, had a 31.4-foot (9.6 m) beam and a draught of 11.8 feet (3.6 m). She could carry 530,000 board feet (1,300 m3) of lumber.[ citation needed ]
The Great Lakes, also called the Laurentian Great Lakes and the Great Lakes of North America, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes primarily in the upper mid-east region of North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River. They consist of Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario, although hydrologically, there are four lakes, Superior, Erie, Ontario, and Michigan-Huron. The connected lakes form the Great Lakes Waterway.
Lumber or timber is a type of wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production. Lumber is mainly used for structural purposes but has many other uses as well.
A cargo ship or freighter ship is a merchant ship that carries cargo, goods, and materials from one port to another. Thousands of cargo carriers ply the world's seas and oceans each year, handling the bulk of international trade. Cargo ships are usually specially designed for the task, often being equipped with cranes and other mechanisms to load and unload, and come in all sizes. Today, they are almost always built by welded steel, and with some exceptions generally have a life expectancy of 25 to 30 years before being scrapped.
The machinery was Steeple Compound steam engine built by the Frontier Engine Works of Buffalo, New York in 1888. The engine was rated at 280 horsepower (210 kW) at 96 revolutions per minute. The fire box boiler was manufactured by R. Davis of Milwaukee and rated at 100 pounds per square inch (690 kPa).[ citation needed ]
Buffalo is the second largest city in the U.S. state of New York and the largest city in Western New York. As of July 2016, the population was 256,902. The city is the county seat of Erie County and a major gateway for commerce and travel across the Canada–United States border, forming part of the bi-national Buffalo Niagara Region.
In 1892 May Durr was renamed to John Spry. Between 1905 and 1910 the vessel was sold to the William H. White & Co. of Boyne City, Michigan, where she was renamed as Three Brothers after the White brothers William, James and Thomas of Charlevoix, Michigan. The vessel was then pressed in coarse lumber service between Lake Charlevoix and Tonawanda, New York.[ citation needed ]
Boyne City is a city in Charlevoix County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 3,735 at the 2010 census.
Charlevoix is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 2,513 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Charlevoix County. Charlevoix is mostly surrounded by Charlevoix Township, but the two are administered autonomously.
Lake Charlevoix is a lake in Charlevoix County in the U.S. state of Michigan. It is the third largest lake in the state with a surface area of over 17,200 acres (70 km²) and 56 miles (90 km) of shoreline. The maximum depth in the main basin is 122 feet and in the south arm, 58 feet.
On 27 September 1911, Three Brothers was carrying a load of hardwood worth of $4,200 from Boyne City to Chicago. After leaving Boyne City the vessel was sailing in heavy weather, and the hull began to leak more than usual. Water soon overwhelmed the pumps, quickly rising more than 8 feet (2.4 m) above the keel. The water also flooded the hold and coal bunkers, forcing the firemen to use kerosene instead of coal to maintain the steam pressure.[ citation needed ]
Hardwood is wood from dicot trees. These are usually found in broad-leaved temperate and tropical forests. In temperate and boreal latitudes they are mostly deciduous, but in tropics and subtropics mostly evergreen. Hardwood contrasts with softwood.
Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil, is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum. It is widely used as a fuel in industry as well as households. Its name derives from Greek: κηρός (keros) meaning wax, and was registered as a trademark by Canadian geologist and inventor Abraham Gesner in 1854 before evolving into a genericized trademark. It is sometimes spelled kerosine in scientific and industrial usage. The term kerosene is common in much of Argentina, Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand, and the United States, while the term paraffin is used in Chile, eastern Africa, South Africa, Norway, and in the United Kingdom. The term lamp oil, or the equivalent in the local languages, is common in the majority of Asia. Liquid paraffin is a more viscous and highly refined product which is used as a laxative. Paraffin wax is a waxy solid extracted from petroleum.
In order to save the vessel captain Sam Christopher elected to drive the vessel ashore on South Manitou Island, where she landed just 200 yards (180 m) east of the lifesaving station. When the vessel hit the shore the bow split open and her pilot house was knocked loose. The bow was in approximately 15 feet (4.6 m) of water, with her stern in 50 feet (15 m) of water. The captain and all 13 members of crew were rescued by the life saving station staff.[ citation needed ]
South Manitou Island is located in Lake Michigan, approximately 16 miles (26 km) west of Leland, Michigan. It is part of Leelanau County and the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore. The uninhabited island is 8.277 sq mi (21.44 km2) in land area and can be accessed by a ferry service from Leland. Guided tours on open-air vehicles are available to visitors, but most traffic is on foot. Larger North Manitou Island lies to its north.
After the weather subsided, the tender Favourite made an unsuccessful attempt to loosen Three Brothers, and the vessel was declared to be beyond salvage value. By 1912 the vessel had completely submerged under water.[ citation needed ]
Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America and the only one located entirely within the United States. The other four Great Lakes are shared by the U.S. and Canada. It is the second-largest of the Great Lakes by volume and the third-largest by surface area, after Lake Superior and Lake Huron. To the east, its basin is conjoined with that of Lake Huron through the wide Straits of Mackinac, giving it the same surface elevation as its easterly counterpart; the two are technically a single lake.
The PS Lady Elgin was a wooden-hulled sidewheel steamship that sank in Lake Michigan off Highwood, Illinois after she was rammed in a gale by the schooner Augusta in the early hours of September 8, 1860. The passenger manifest was lost with the collision, but the sinking of Lady Elgin resulted in the loss of about 300 lives in what was called "one of the greatest marine horrors on record". Four years after the disaster, a new rule required sailing vessels to carry running lights. The Lady Elgin disaster remains the greatest loss of life on open water in the history of the Great Lakes.
Charlevoix County is a county in the U.S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, the population was 25,949. The county seat is Charlevoix.
SS Milwaukee was a train ferry that served on Lake Michigan. It was launched in 1902 and sank with all hands off Milwaukee on October 22, 1929. Fifty-two men were lost with the vessel.
The SS Carl D. Bradley was a self-unloading Great Lakes freighter that sank in a Lake Michigan storm on November 18, 1958. Of the 35 crew members, 33 died in the sinking. 23 were from the port town of Rogers City, Michigan. Her sinking was likely caused by structural failure from the brittle steel used in her construction. She was the sister of the ill-fated SS Cedarville.
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The history of commercial passenger shipping on the Great Lakes is long but uneven. It reached its zenith between the mid-19th century and the 1950s. As early as 1844, palace steamers carried passengers and cargo around the Great Lakes. By 1900, fleets of relatively luxurious passenger steamers plied the waters of the lower lakes, especially the major industrial centres of Chicago, Milwaukee, Detroit, Cleveland, Buffalo, and Toronto.
Glen Haven is a restored port village on the shore of Lake Michigan on the Leelanau Peninsula within the now Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore. Attractions include the Lake Michigan beach, a restored General Store and Blacksmith Shop. The unincorporated community is located in Glen Arbor Township.
The Hennepin is a shipwreck off the east coast of Lake Michigan, west of South Haven, Michigan. The ship was originally built in October 1888 and sank on August 18, 1927. Michigan Shipwreck Research Associates found the ship in 2006 and conducted several dives to assess the condition of the wreck. The wreck was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on February 1, 2008. It is significant as the first self-unloading bulk carrier.
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