Three Romances for Violin and Piano

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Three Romances for Violin and Piano
by Clara Schumann
Franz von Lenbach - Clara Schumann (Pastell 1878).jpg
Schumann, in 1878, in a painting by Franz von Lenbach
Catalogue Op. 22
Composed1853
Dedication Joseph Joachim
Published
Movements3

The Three Romances for Violin and Piano, Op. 22 of Clara Schumann, were written in 1853 and first published in 1855.

Romance (music) musical form of brief, simple melody

The term romance has a centuries-long history. Applied to narrative ballads in Spain, it came to be used by the 18th century for simple lyrical pieces not only for voice, but also for instruments alone. The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that "generally it implies a specially personal or tender quality".

In musical composition, the opus number is the "work number" that is assigned to a musical composition, or to a set of compositions, to indicate the chronological order of the composer's production. Opus numbers are used to distinguish among compositions with similar titles; the word is abbreviated as "Op." for a single work, or "Opp." when referring to more than one work.

Clara Schumann German musician and composer

Clara Schumann was a German pianist, composer and piano teacher. She is regarded as one of the most distinguished pianists of the Romantic era, exerting her influence over a 61-year concert career. She changed the format and repertoire of the piano recital from displays of virtuosity to programs of serious works. She composed solo works for her instrument, a piano concerto, chamber music, choral pieces, and songs.

Contents

Background

Having moved to Düsseldorf in 1853, Clara Schumann, who said that "Women are not born to compose," produced several works, including these three romances. [1] Dedicated to the legendary violinist Joseph Joachim, Schumann and Joachim went on tour with them, even playing them before King George V of Hanover, who was "completely ecstatic" upon hearing them. [2] A critic for the Neue Berliner Musikzeitung praised them, declaring: "All three pieces display an individual character conceived in a truly sincere manner and written in a delicate and fragrant hand." [2] Stephen Pettitt for The Times, wrote, "Lush and poignant, they make one regret that Clara's career as a composer became subordinate to her husband's." [3]

Düsseldorf Place in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Düsseldorf is the capital and second-largest city of the most populous German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia after Cologne, as well as the seventh-largest city in Germany, with a population of 617,280. At the confluence of the Rhine and its tributary Düssel, the city lies in the centre of both the Rhine-Ruhr and the Rhineland Metropolitan Regions with the Cologne Bonn Region to its south and the Ruhr to its north. Most of the city lies on the right bank of the Rhine. The city is the largest in the German Low Franconian dialect area. "Dorf" meaning "village" in German, the "-dorf" suffix is unusual in the German-speaking area for a settlement of Düsseldorf's size.

Joseph Joachim Hungarian musician

Joseph Joachim was a Hungarian violinist, conductor, composer and teacher. A close collaborator of Johannes Brahms, he is widely regarded as one of the most significant violinists of the 19th century.

George V of Hanover King of Hanover

George V was the last king of Hanover, the only child and successor of King Ernest Augustus. George V's reign was ended during the Unification of Germany.

Structure

The romances, scored for violin and piano, are written in three movements:

Violin bowed string instrument, usually with four strings tuned in perfect fifths

The violin, sometimes known as a fiddle, is a wooden string instrument in the violin family. Most violins have a hollow wooden body. It is the smallest and highest-pitched instrument in the family in regular use. Smaller violin-type instruments exist, including the violino piccolo and the kit violin, but these are virtually unused. The violin typically has four strings, usually tuned in perfect fifths with notes G3, D4, A4, E5, and is most commonly played by drawing a bow across its strings, though it can also be played by plucking the strings with the fingers (pizzicato) and by striking the strings with the wooden side of the bow.

Piano musical instrument

The piano is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented in Italy by Bartolomeo Cristofori around the year 1700, in which the strings are struck by hammers. It is played using a keyboard, which is a row of keys that the performer presses down or strikes with the fingers and thumbs of both hands to cause the hammers to strike the strings.

  1. Andante molto
  2. Allegretto
  3. Leidenschaftlich schnell

The first romance begins with hints of gypsy pathos, before a brief central theme with energetic arpeggios ensues. [4] This is followed by a final section similar to the first, in which Clara Schumann charmingly refers to the main theme from her husband Robert Schumann's first violin sonata. [5] The second romance is more wistful, with many embellishments. It is sometimes considered as representative of all three, beginning with a plaintive appetizer to its energetic, extroverted leaps and arpeggios, followed by a more developed section with the first theme present. [6] The last movement, while very similar to the first but approximately the same length in time as the first two, features long-limbed melodies with rippling, bubbling piano accompaniment. [7]

Robert Schumann German composer

Robert Schumann was a German composer, pianist, and influential music critic. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest composers of the Romantic era. Schumann left the study of law, intending to pursue a career as a virtuoso pianist. His teacher, Friedrich Wieck, a German pianist, had assured him that he could become the finest pianist in Europe, but a hand injury ended this dream. Schumann then focused his musical energies on composing.

The violin sonata no. 1 in A minor, opus 105 of Robert Schumann was written the week of September 12– 16 September 1851. Schumann was reported to have expressed displeasure with the work. This was also the year of the premiere of the Rhenish symphony, and among compositions the substantial revision of the fourth symphony, the third piano trio, the oratorio Der Rose Pilgerfahrt, a number of piano works and two of his concert overtures, Julius Caesar and Hermann und Dorothea after Goethe.

An average performance is about ten minutes in duration.

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Johannes Brahms German composer and pianist

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Max Bruch German romantic composer and conductor

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The F-A-E Sonata, a four-movement work for violin and piano, is a collaborative musical work by three composers: Robert Schumann, the young Johannes Brahms, and Schumann's pupil Albert Dietrich. It was composed in Düsseldorf in October 1853.

Violin Concerto (Schumann) concerto by Robert Schumann

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Wolfram Lorenzen is a German pianist.

The Piano Trio in G minor, opus 17 by Clara Schumann was written in 1846, and was the only piano trio she wrote. The trio was composed during her presence in Dresden 1845-1846. During the development of the Trio, she was going through hardships in life. Her husband Robert Schumann was extremely ill. This trio was completed during the summer of 1846 when they traveled to Norderney in attempts to improve Robert's health conditions. While in Norderney, Clara suffered from miscarriage. A year after the composition of her piano trio, Robert composed his first piano trio, op.63. It is seen that Clara's trio has had great influences on Robert's trio as they both share many interesting similarities. Their works were frequently paired at concerts.

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The Sonata for Violin and Piano No. 2 in D minor Op. 121 by Robert Schumann was completed in November 1851, Dedicated to the violinist Ferdinand David, the sonata received its first public performance from Clara Schumann and Joseph Joachim on October 29, 1853 in Düsseldorf, in a concert that marked the beginning of a long term musical collaboration.

Märchenerzählungen, Op. 132, is a trio composition by Robert Schumann in four movements for clarinet, viola and piano. He composed the clarinet-viola-piano trio in B-flat major, between 9 and 11 October 1853. The movements are connected by a motif (Kernmotiv). The work is dedicated to Schumann's pupil Albert Dietrich, and was published in 1854 by Breitkopf & Härtel.

Piano Concerto (Clara Schumann) musical composition by Clara Schumann

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References

  1. "Schumann, Clara: Three Romances for Violin, Op. 22". Tim Summers, violinist. Retrieved 19 February 2016.
  2. 1 2 Rodda, Dr. Richard E. "Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center: Sunday, April 27, 2014" (PDF). Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center. Retrieved 19 February 2016.
  3. Pettitt, Stephen (27 January 2013). "Record Review". The Times .
  4. "Three Romances for Violin and Piano, Op. 22". LAPhil. Retrieved 19 February 2016.
  5. Phillips, Anthony. "Robert and Clara Schumann: Music for Cello and Piano". Naxos. Retrieved 19 February 2016.
  6. Lowe, Steven. "Seattle Chamber Music Society: Summer Festival, Friday July 12 2013" (PDF). Seattle Chamber Music Society. Retrieved 19 February 2016.
  7. Palmer, John. "Romances (3) for violin & piano, Op. 22". AllMusic. Retrieved 19 February 2016.
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