In particle physics, the **threshold energy** for production of a particle is the minimum kinetic energy that must be imparted to one of a pair of particles in order for their collision to produce a given result.^{ [1] } If the desired result is to produce a third particle then the threshold energy is greater than or equal to the rest energy of the desired particle. In most cases, since momentum is also conserved, the threshold energy is significantly greater than the rest energy of the desired particle.

The **threshold energy** should not be confused with the threshold displacement energy, which is the minimum energy needed to permanently displace an atom in a crystal to produce a crystal defect in radiation material science.

Consider the collision of a mobile proton with a stationary proton so that a meson is produced:^{ [1] }

We can calculate the minimum energy that the moving proton must have in order to create a pion. Transforming into the ZMF (Zero Momentum Frame or Center of Mass Frame) and assuming the outgoing particles have no KE (kinetic energy) when viewed in the ZMF, the conservation of energy equation is:

Rearranged to

By assuming that the outgoing particles have no KE in the ZMF, we have effectively considered an inelastic collision in which the product particles move with a combined momentum equal to that of the incoming proton in the Lab Frame.

Our terms in our expression will cancel, leaving us with:

Using relativistic velocity additions:

We know that is equal to the speed of one proton as viewed in the ZMF, so we can re-write with :

So the energy of the proton must be MeV.

Therefore, the minimum kinetic energy for the proton must be MeV.

At higher energy, the same collision can produce an antiproton:

If one of the two initial protons is stationary, we find that the impinging proton must be given at least of energy, that is, 5.63 GeV. On the other hand, if both protons are accelerated one towards the other (in a collider) with equal energies, then each needs to be given only of energy.^{ [1] }

Consider the case where a particle 1 with lab energy (momentum ) and mass impinges on a target particle 2 at rest in the lab, i.e. with lab energy and mass . The threshold energy to produce three particles of masses , , , i.e.

is then found by assuming that these three particles are at rest in the center of mass frame (symbols with hat indicate quantities in the center of mass frame):

Here is the total energy available in the center of mass frame.

Using , and one derives that

^{ [2] }

In nuclear physics, **beta decay** (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle is emitted from an atomic nucleus, transforming the original nuclide to an isobar of that nuclide. For example, beta decay of a neutron transforms it into a proton by the emission of an electron accompanied by an antineutrino; or, conversely a proton is converted into a neutron by the emission of a positron with a neutrino in so-called *positron emission*. Neither the beta particle nor its associated (anti-)neutrino exist within the nucleus prior to beta decay, but are created in the decay process. By this process, unstable atoms obtain a more stable ratio of protons to neutrons. The probability of a nuclide decaying due to beta and other forms of decay is determined by its nuclear binding energy. The binding energies of all existing nuclides form what is called the nuclear band or valley of stability. For either electron or positron emission to be energetically possible, the energy release or *Q* value must be positive.

In physics, the **kinetic energy** of an object is the form of energy that it possesses due to its motion. It is defined as the work needed to accelerate a body of a given mass from rest to its stated velocity. Having gained this energy during its acceleration, the body maintains this kinetic energy unless its speed changes. The same amount of work is done by the body when decelerating from its current speed to a state of rest. Formally, a kinetic energy is any term in a system's Lagrangian which includes a derivative with respect to time and the second term in a Taylor expansion of a particle's relativistic energy.

In particle physics, **Rutherford scattering** is the elastic scattering of charged particles by the Coulomb interaction. It is a physical phenomenon explained by Ernest Rutherford in 1911 that led to the development of the planetary Rutherford model of the atom and eventually the Bohr model. Rutherford scattering was first referred to as **Coulomb scattering** because it relies only upon the static electric (Coulomb) potential, and the minimum distance between particles is set entirely by this potential. The classical Rutherford scattering process of alpha particles against gold nuclei is an example of "elastic scattering" because neither the alpha particles nor the gold nuclei are internally excited. The Rutherford formula further neglects the recoil kinetic energy of the massive target nucleus.

* Bremsstrahlung*, from

An ideal **Fermi gas** is a state of matter which is an ensemble of many non-interacting fermions. Fermions are particles that obey Fermi–Dirac statistics, like electrons, protons, and neutrons, and, in general, particles with half-integer spin. These statistics determine the energy distribution of fermions in a Fermi gas in thermal equilibrium, and is characterized by their number density, temperature, and the set of available energy states. The model is named after the Italian physicist Enrico Fermi.

In physics, a **wave vector** is a vector used in describing a wave, with a typical unit being cycle per metre. It has a magnitude and direction. Its magnitude is the wavenumber of the wave, and its direction is perpendicular to the wavefront. In isotropic media, this is also the direction of wave propagation.

In mathematical logic and type theory, the **λ-cube** is a framework introduced by Henk Barendregt to investigate the different dimensions in which the calculus of constructions is a generalization of the simply typed λ-calculus. Each dimension of the cube corresponds to a new kind of dependency between terms and types. Here, "dependency" refers to the capacity of a term or type to bind a term or type. The respective dimensions of the λ-cube correspond to:

A **radiation zone**, or **radiative region** is a layer of a star's interior where energy is primarily transported toward the exterior by means of radiative diffusion and thermal conduction, rather than by convection. Energy travels through the radiation zone in the form of electromagnetic radiation as photons.

In rotordynamics, the **rigid rotor** is a mechanical model of rotating systems. An arbitrary rigid rotor is a 3-dimensional rigid object, such as a top. To orient such an object in space requires three angles, known as Euler angles. A special rigid rotor is the *linear rotor* requiring only two angles to describe, for example of a diatomic molecule. More general molecules are 3-dimensional, such as water, ammonia, or methane.

The **relativistic Breit–Wigner distribution** is a continuous probability distribution with the following probability density function,

In physics, the **Thomas precession**, named after Llewellyn Thomas, is a relativistic correction that applies to the spin of an elementary particle or the rotation of a macroscopic gyroscope and relates the angular velocity of the spin of a particle following a curvilinear orbit to the angular velocity of the orbital motion.

In electrodynamics, the **Larmor formula** is used to calculate the total power radiated by a nonrelativistic point charge as it accelerates. It was first derived by J. J. Larmor in 1897, in the context of the wave theory of light.

A **theoretical motivation for general relativity**, including the motivation for the geodesic equation and the Einstein field equation, can be obtained from special relativity by examining the dynamics of particles in circular orbits about the earth. A key advantage in examining circular orbits is that it is possible to know the solution of the Einstein Field Equation *a priori*. This provides a means to inform and verify the formalism.

**Plasma parameters** define various characteristics of a plasma, an electrically conductive collection of charged particles that responds *collectively* to electromagnetic forces. Plasma typically takes the form of neutral gas-like clouds or charged ion beams, but may also include dust and grains. The behaviour of such particle systems can be studied statistically.

In stellar physics, the **Jeans instability** causes the collapse of interstellar gas clouds and subsequent star formation, named after James Jeans. It occurs when the internal gas pressure is not strong enough to prevent gravitational collapse of a region filled with matter. For stability, the cloud must be in hydrostatic equilibrium, which in case of a spherical cloud translates to:

**Intrabeam scattering** (**IBS**) is an effect in accelerator physics where collisions between particles couple the beam emittance in all three dimensions. This generally causes the beam size to grow. In proton accelerators, intrabeam scattering causes the beam to grow slowly over a period of several hours. This limits the luminosity lifetime. In circular lepton accelerators, intrabeam scattering is counteracted by radiation damping, resulting in a new equilibrium beam emittance with a relaxation time on the order of milliseconds. Intrabeam scattering creates an inverse relationship between the smallness of the beam and the number of particles it contains, therefore limiting luminosity.

In particle physics, **particle decay** is the spontaneous process of one unstable subatomic particle transforming into multiple other particles. The particles created in this process must each be less massive than the original, although the total invariant mass of the system must be conserved. A particle is unstable if there is at least one allowed final state that it can decay into. Unstable particles will often have multiple ways of decaying, each with its own associated probability. Decays are mediated by one or several fundamental forces. The particles in the final state may themselves be unstable and subject to further decay.

In physics, **relativistic angular momentum** refers to the mathematical formalisms and physical concepts that define angular momentum in special relativity (SR) and general relativity (GR). The relativistic quantity is subtly different from the three-dimensional quantity in classical mechanics.

In experimental physics, researchers have proposed **non-extensive self-consistent thermodynamic theory** to describe phenomena observed in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). This theory investigates a fireball for high-energy particle collisions, while using Tsallis non-extensive thermodynamics. Fireballs lead to the bootstrap idea, or self-consistency principle, just as in the Boltzmann statistics used by Rolf Hagedorn. Assuming the distribution function gets variations, due to possible symmetrical change, Abdel Nasser Tawfik applied the non-extensive concepts of high-energy particle production.

In physics, the **Maxwell–Jüttner distribution** is the distribution of speeds of particles in a hypothetical gas of relativistic particles. Similar to Maxwell's distribution, the Maxwell–Jüttner distribution considers a classical ideal gas where the particles are dilute and do not significantly interact with each other. The distinction from Maxwell's case is that effects of special relativity are taken into account. In the limit of low temperatures much less than , this distribution becomes identical to the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution.

- 1 2 3 Michael Fowler. "Transforming Energy into Mass: Particle Creation".
*Particle Creation*. Archived from the original on Aug 15, 2022. - ↑ Jackson, John.
*Classical Electrodynamics*. Wiley. pp. 533–539. ISBN 978-0-471-30932-1.

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