The Thulin LA was a Swedish two-seat, single-engine biplane designed by Enoch Thulin in 1917 and made by his company AB Thulinverken in Landskrona. It was based on the earlier Thulin L and E aircraft, with a new engine, fuselage and empennage. The L and E types were in turn based on the German Albatros B.II aircraft, like the NAB Albatros. The Thulin LA was used in Sweden, the Netherlands (10) and Finland (1). This type also made the first passenger transport flights between Sweden and Denmark in 1919. Altogether there were 15 Thulin LAs built.
Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, and is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund Strait. At 450,295 square kilometres (173,860 sq mi), Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. The capital city is Stockholm. Sweden has a total population of 10.3 million of which 2.5 million have a foreign background. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre (57/sq mi) and the highest urban concentration is in the central and southern half of the country.
A biplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with two main wings stacked one above the other. The first powered, controlled aeroplane to fly, the Wright Flyer, used a biplane wing arrangement, as did many aircraft in the early years of aviation. While a biplane wing structure has a structural advantage over a monoplane, it produces more drag than a similar unbraced or cantilever monoplane wing. Improved structural techniques, better materials and the quest for greater speed made the biplane configuration obsolete for most purposes by the late 1930s.
Enoch Leonard Thulin, is primarily remembered as a pioneer of the Swedish aircraft industry. He was an engineer who also worked on cars, lorries and internal combustion engines.
The engine used was a Thulin G, which was an 11-cylinder 75 kW (100 hp) Le Rhône 11F (bore x stroke 105 mm × 140 mm (4.1 in × 5.5 in)), manufactured under licence by Thulinverken in Sweden. Thulin had journeyed to France in 1915 and acquired the licence to manufacture it from Gnome et Rhône, as well as the Le Rhone 9C, which was sold as the Thulin A. The Thulin-built engine, with a dry weight of 168 kg (370 lb), replaced the much heavier original engine of the Albatros B.II, a Mercedes D.II 89 kW (120 hp) 6-cylinder inline water-cooled engine weighing 240 kg (530 lb).
Gnome et Rhône was a major French aircraft engine manufacturer. Between 1914 and 1918 they produced 25,000 of their 9-cylinder Delta and Le Rhône 110 hp (81 kW) rotary designs, while another 75,000 were produced by various licensees. These engines powered the majority of aircraft in the first half of the war, both Allied designs as well as German examples produced by Motorenfabrik Oberursel.
The Mercedes D.II was a six-cylinder, SOHC valvetrain liquid-cooled inline aircraft engine built by Daimler during the early stages of World War I. Producing about 110 to 120 hp, it was at the low-end of the power range of contemporary engines, and was generally outperformed by rotaries whose power-to-weight ratio tended to be much better. It also had stiff competition from the Ferdinand Porsche-designed 120 hp Austro-Daimler 6. The D.II was produced only briefly as a result, but its design formed the basis for the later Mercedes D.III which saw widespread use throughout the war.
The Finnish Air Force (The Whites) received one aircraft as a gift from Sweden from the grocery magnate G. Svensson in the spring of 1918.
The Finnish Air Force is one of the branches of the Finnish Defence Forces. Its peacetime tasks are airspace surveillance, identification flights, and production of readiness formations for wartime conditions. The Finnish Air Force was founded on 6 March 1918.
The aircraft arrived by ship at Turku on 5 May 1918, where it was used at the Turku Flying School (Turun Lentokoulu), established on 1 May 1918. The flying school was renamed V Flying Detachment (V Lento-osasto) of the Finnish Air Force on 1 October 1918.The aircraft was mainly used as a trainer aircraft and was destroyed in a crash due to engine malfunction outside Helsinki's Pohjoissatama harbour in February 1919.
Turku is a city on the southwest coast of Finland at the mouth of the Aura River, in the region of Finland Proper (Varsinais-Suomi). The region was originally called Suomi (Finland), which later became the name for the whole country.
Helsinki is the capital and most populous city of Finland. Located on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, it is the seat of the region of Uusimaa in southern Finland, and has a population of 650,058. The city's urban area has a population of 1,268,296, making it by far the most populous urban area in Finland as well as the country's most important center for politics, education, finance, culture, and research. Helsinki is located 80 kilometres (50 mi) north of Tallinn, Estonia, 400 km (250 mi) east of Stockholm, Sweden, and 300 km (190 mi) west of Saint Petersburg, Russia. It has close historical ties with these three cities.
Thulin also made a floatplane version of the LA, based on the Albatros B.II-W ("Wasserflugzeug").
A floatplane is a type of seaplane with one or more slender floats mounted under the fuselage to provide buoyancy. By contrast, a flying boat uses its fuselage for buoyancy. Either type of seaplane may also have landing gear suitable for land, making the vehicle an amphibious aircraft. British usage is to call "floatplanes" "seaplanes" rather than use the term "seaplane" to refer to both floatplanes and flying boats.
The Albatros B.II, was an unarmed German two-seat reconnaissance biplane of the First World War.
AB Thulinverken was a company in Landskrona, Sweden, founded in 1914 as Enoch Thulins Aeroplanfabrik by the airman and aircraft technician Enoch Thulin. The company became Sweden's first aircraft manufacturer. In 1920, Thulin also started manufacturing automobiles, which continued until 1928. During World War I, the company came into financial difficulties and was reconstructed in 1922 as AB Thulinverken. The manufacturing of brake systems became a main focus of the company. In 1958, Thulinverken merged with Svenska AB Bromsregulator. The remains of Thulinverken are now a part of SAB Wabco AB, which is owned by the French Faiveley Transport company since 2004.
VL Kotka ("Eagle") was a Finnish two-seat, biplane maritime patrol aircraft, designed and built by the Valtion lentokonetehdas or VL. It was meant as a cheaper replacement for the outdated IVL A.22 Hansas that were in service with the Finnish Air Force.
Jorma Kalevi Sarvanto was a Finnish Air Force pilot and the foremost Finnish fighter ace of the Winter War.
Adaridi AD 3 was a wooden aircraft designed by the Russian engineer Boris Adaridin, who lived in Finland. It was a high wing aircraft with a low-powered engine. In 1923, the Finnish Air Force ordered one Adaridi aircraft. The aircraft was not given any official designation code. The maiden flight was on April 17, 1924.
The Caudron C.59 was a French, two-seat biplane with a single engine and a canvas-covered fuselage, produced between 1922 and 1924. Suitable for a variety of roles, more than 1,800 Caudron C.59s were manufactured.
The Caudron C.60 was a French two-seat biplane of the 1920s and 1930s with a single engine and a canvas-covered fuselage. The French aircraft manufacturer Caudron developed this aircraft from the Caudron C.59. It was mainly used as a trainer aircraft.
The Caudron G.3 was a single-engined French biplane built by Caudron, widely used in World War I as a reconnaissance aircraft and trainer.
The Caudron G.4 was a French biplane with twin engines, widely used during World War I as a bomber. It was designed by René and Gaston Caudron as an improvement over their single-engined Caudron G.3. The aircraft employed wing warping for banking. The first G.4 was built in 1915, and it was manufactured in France, England and Italy.
The Blériot-SPAD S.34 was a French twin-seat, single-engine biplane flight training aircraft designed in 1920. The side-by-side seating arrangement was unique for its time. 150 aircraft were built, 125 for the French Air Force, who used them until 1936.
The Nieuport 21 was a French single-seat, single-engine fighter aircraft used during World War I. The aircraft was used by the French, Russian, British and American air forces. After the war, the Nieuport 21 was a popular civil aircraft.
The Rumpler 6B was a German single-engine floatplane fighter with a biplane wing structure, designed and built by Rumpler Flugzeugwerke, in Berlin Johannisthal and introduced in 1916.
The Rumpler C.VIII was a German single-engine biplane advanced trainer manufactured by Rumpler Flugzeugwerke, in Berlin Johannisthal in 1917.
The SIAI Savoia S.9 was an Italian reconnaissance flying boat, manufactured by Societa Idrovolanti Alta Italia (S.I.A.I.) from 1918. The wing structure was unusual by being a single-bay biplane wing, with additional struts mounted mid-bay at the junction of the flying and landing wires, so that it appeared to have a two-bay wing. The S.9 was also licence-built in France by CAMS as the CAMS C.9.
Hansa-Brandenburg W.33 was a German two-seat, low-wing single-engined seaplane, which had been designed by Hansa und Brandenburgische Flugzeugwerke during World War I. Although the W.33 was built in relatively small numbers, the design was widely recognized as successful and numerous copies and license built versions were built by the hundreds after World War I.
No. 17 Replenishment Squadron, was a replenishment bomber squadron of the Finnish Air Force during World War II. The No. 17 Sqn was part of Flying Regiment 4.
Gustaf Erik Magnusson was a Finnish major general and Mannerheim Cross Knight. He was the commander of the No. 24 Squadron and Flying Regiment 3 during World War II. He also flew 158 sorties as a fighter pilot and shot down 5 1/2 enemy aircraft.
Nils Edward Katajainen was a Finnish fighter pilot and a Mannerheim Cross Knight. He held the military rank of sergeant. He flew 196 sorties and shot down 35 enemy aircraft.
Olavi Kauko Puro was born on 18 November 1918 in Helsinki and died on 20 June 1999. He was one of the top scoring aces in the Finnish Air Force with 36 confirmed victories.
The Caudron G.2 was a single-engined French biplane built by Caudron, used in World War I as a reconnaissance aircraft and trainer.
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