Thumb Peak as seen from Puerto Princesa, 9 July 2007
|Elevation||1,296 m (4,252 ft)|
|Parent range||Thumb Range|
Thumb Peak is a small mountain in central Palawan, Philippines, and is the highest point in the Thumb Range. Like Mount Mantalingahan and Mount Victoria further south, Thumb Peak is part of the Mount Beaufort Ultramafics geological area, a series of ultramafic outcrops of Eocene origin that emerge in various parts of the island.
Palawan, officially the Province of Palawan is an archipelagic province of the Philippines that is located in the region of MIMAROPA. It is the largest province in the country in terms of total area of jurisdiction. Its capital is the city of Puerto Princesa, but the city is governed independently from the province as a highly urbanized city.
The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, and Malaysia and Indonesia to the south.
Mount Victoria, or Victoria Peaks, is a mountain in central Palawan, Philippines, that lies within the administrative Municipality of Narra. The mountain, which includes the twin peaks known as "The Teeth", as well as the single prominence known as Sagpaw, form the largest contiguous land area and second highest portion of the Mount Beaufort Ultramafics geological region, a series of ultramafic outcrops of Eocene origin, that includes Palawan's highest peak, Mount Mantalingahan.
The mountain was formerly known as Mount Pulgar, a name it acquired during the Spanish Colonial period. Pulgar, means thumb in Spanish, and the name was probably translated directly to English following the ousting of Spain during the Spanish–American War. The name may have arisen as a result of the mountain's profile, which vaguely resembles the tip of a thumb protruding from a clenched fist.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and eventually became a global lingua franca. Named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to the area of Great Britain that would later take their name, England, both names ultimately deriving from the Anglia peninsula in the Baltic Sea. It is closely related to Frisian and Low Saxon, and its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse, and to a greater extent Latin and French.
Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a country mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.
The upper reaches of Thumb Peak are populated by species associated with ultramafic soils, including a number of endemics, such as the tropical pitcher plant Nepenthes deaniana , rediscovered on the mountain in 2007 for the first time since its description in 1908 (see external links).
Pitcher plants are several different carnivorous plants which have modified leaves known as pitfall traps—a prey-trapping mechanism featuring a deep cavity filled with digestive liquid. The traps of what are considered to be "true" pitcher plants are formed by specialized leaves. The plants attract and drown their prey with nectar.
Nepenthes deaniana is a tropical pitcher plant endemic to the Philippines, where it grows at an altitude of 1180–1296 m above sea level. The species is known only from the summit region of Thumb Peak, a relatively small, ultramafic mountain in Puerto Princesa Province, Palawan.
Thumb Peak is accessible from the Iwahig Penal Colony as a 2–3 day hike, graded Difficulty 7/9 by local mountaineering website PinoyMountaineer.com. Highlights of the trail include river crossings, trekking through dense forests, and beautiful views at the summit. A permit is required to climb the mountain.
Mount Apo is a large solfataric, potentially active stratovolcano on the island of Mindanao, Philippines. With an elevation of 2,954 meters (9,692 ft) above sea level, it is the highest mountain in the Philippine Archipelago and is located between Davao City and Davao del Sur province in Region XI and Cotabato in Region XII. The peak overlooks Davao City 45 kilometers (28 mi) to the northeast, Digos 25 kilometers (16 mi) to the southeast, and Kidapawan 20 kilometers (12 mi) to the west.
Mount Guiting-Guiting is the highest mountain in the province of Romblon located at the heart of Sibuyan Island and dominates the entire island. Guiting-Guiting, in the local Romblomanon dialect, means "jagged". The mountain is one of the focal points of Sibuyan's declaration as a biodiversity haven. The entire island has been compared numerous times with the biodiversity endemism rate of the Galapagos islands. This endemism prompted much of the mountain and its slopes to be protected under the Mt. Guiting-Guiting Natural Park, established in 1996. The park also encompasses nearby Mt. Nailog to the west.
Mount Banahaw is a potentially active volcano on Luzon in the Philippines. The three-peaked volcano complex is located between the provinces of Laguna and Quezon and is the tallest mountain in the CALABARZON region dominating the landscape for miles around.
Nepenthes philippinensis is a tropical pitcher plant endemic to the Philippines. It is known from Palawan and the neighbouring Calamian Islands and Linapacan, where it grows at 0–600 metres (2,000 ft) above sea level.
Nepenthes mantalingajanensis is a tropical pitcher plant known only from the summit region of Mount Mantalingajan, the highest point on the Philippine island of Palawan, after which it is named.
Mount Mantalingajan is the highest point in the province of Palawan, Philippines. located in the southern part of Palawan Island that forms the highest part of the Beaufort Mountains Ultramafics geological region, a series of ultramafic outcrops of Eocene origin, of which Mount Victoria forms the largest contiguous land area. The peak of the mountain is the highest point on Palawan.
Mount Kitanglad is an inactive volcano located in the Kitanglad Mountain Range in Bukidnon province on Mindanao island. It is the fourth highest mountain in the Philippines and has an approximate height of 2,899 meters. It is located between Malaybalay City and the municipalities of Lantapan, Impasugong, Sumilao, and Libona.
Nepenthes peltata is a tropical pitcher plant known only from the upper slopes of Mount Hamiguitan on the island of Mindanao in the Philippines. It is characterised by a peltate tendril attachment and conspicuous indumentum. The species typically produces ovoid pitchers with a prominent basal crest and large nectar glands on the lower surface of the lid.
Mount Dulang-dulang, dubbed by Filipino mountaineers as "D2", is the highest elevation peak in the Kitanglad Mountain Range, located in the north central portion of the province of Bukidnon in the island of Mindanao. It is the second highest mountain of the Philippines at 2,941 metres (9,649 ft) above sea level, second only to Mount Apo of Davao at 2,956 m (9,698 ft) and slightly higher than Mount Pulag of Luzon, the third highest at 2,922 m (9,587 ft).
Nepenthes attenboroughii, or Attenborough's pitcher plant, is a montane species of carnivorous pitcher plant of the genus Nepenthes. It is named after the celebrated broadcaster and naturalist Sir David Attenborough, who is a keen enthusiast of the genus. The species is characterised by its large and distinctive bell-shaped lower and upper pitchers and narrow, upright lid. The type specimen of N. attenboroughii was collected on the summit of Mount Victoria, an ultramafic mountain in central Palawan, the Philippines.
Alastair S. Robinson is an Australia-based British taxonomist and field botanist specialising in the carnivorous plant genus Nepenthes, for which he is regarded as a world authority. Robinson published the first paleogeographical evidence for the radiative speciation of an enigmatic group of ultramafic Philippine and Malaysian Nepenthes from a common ancestor on the island of Borneo.
Nepenthes palawanensis is a tropical pitcher plant endemic to Sultan Peak on the island of Palawan in the Philippines, where it grows at elevations of 1100–1236 m above sea level. It was discovered in February 2010 by Jehson Cervancia and Stewart McPherson.
Nepenthes gantungensis is a tropical pitcher plant known from a single peak on the Philippine island of Palawan, where it grows at elevations of 1600–1784 m above sea level.
Nepenthes leonardoi is a tropical pitcher plant known from a single locality in central Palawan, the Philippines. It is closely allied to several other Palawan endemics, including N. deaniana, N. gantungensis, and N. mira. The traps of this species reach at least 24 cm in height. Some specimens are noted for producing very dark, almost black, upper pitchers.
Mount Tapulao is the tallest mountain in the Zambales Mountain range and in the province of Zambales in the Philippines. The peak, which rise to an elevation of 2,037 metres (6,683 ft), is located in the municipality of Palauig, Zambales. Its name is derived from the abundance of Sumatran Pine trees in the area, known in Zambal as tapolaw.
Nepenthes sp. Anipahan is an undescribed tropical pitcher plant known only from Mount Anipahan in central Palawan, the Philippines, where it grows in upper montane forest at 1200–1400 m above sea level. It is very closely allied to N. leonardoi and may be conspecific with it.
Mount Palay-Palay,also known as Mount Pico de Loro, is a dormant volcano in Cavite province on the island of Luzon, Philippines. The mountain rises to an elevation of 688 m (2,257 ft) above mean sea level and is the highest peak of the Mounts Palay-Palay–Mataas-na-Gulod Protected Landscape. The mountain is one of the ancient volcanic features of Bataan Arc.
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