Thyus (in Greek Θύoς or Θυς; lived 4th century BC) was a Persian prince of Paphlagonia (in today Turkey) who rebelled against Artaxerxes II. Datames, who was his first cousin, endeavoured to persuade him to return to his allegiance; but this had no effect, and on one occasion, when Datames had sought a friendly conference with him, Thyus laid a plot for his assassination. Datames escaped the danger through a timely warning given him by his mother, and, on his return to his own government, declared war against Thyus, subdued him, and made him a prisoner together with his wife and children. He then arrayed him in all the insignia of his royal rank, dressed himself in hunter's garb, and, having fastened a rope round Thyus, drove him before him with a cudgel, and brought him in this guise into the presence of Artaxerxes, as if he were a wild beast that he had captured. Cornelius Nepos describes Thyus as a man of huge stature and grim aspect, with dark complexion, and long hair and beard. Aelian notices him as notorious for his voracity, while Theopompus related that he was accustomed to have one hundred dishes placed on his table at one meal, and that, when he was imprisoned by Artaxerxes, he continued the same course of life, which drew from the king the remark that Thyus was living as if he expected a speedy death.
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia founded by Cyrus the Great. Ranging at its greatest extent from the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west to the Indus Valley in the east, it was larger than any previous empire in history, spanning 5.5 million square kilometers. Incorporating various peoples of different origins and faiths, it is notable for its successful model of a centralised, bureaucratic administration, for building infrastructure such as road systems and a postal system, the use of an official language across its territories, and the development of civil services and a large professional army. The empire's successes inspired similar systems in later empires.
Paphlagonia was an ancient area on the Black Sea coast of north central Anatolia, situated between Bithynia to the west and Pontus to the east, and separated from Phrygia by a prolongation to the east of the Bithynian Olympus. According to Strabo, the river Parthenius formed the western limit of the region, and it was bounded on the east by the Halys river. The name Paphlagonia is derived in the legends from Paphlagon, a son of Phineus.
Mithridates of Cius a Persian noble, succeeded his kinsman or father Ariobarzanes II in 337 BCE as ruler of the Greek town of Cius in Mysia. Diodorus assigns him a rule of thirty-five years, but it appears that his rule of Cius was interrupted during that period. What circumstances led to his expulsion or subjection are unknown; nothing is heard of him until his death in 302 BCE. However, it appears that he had submitted to the Macedonian Antigonus, who, to prevent him from joining the league of Cassander and his confederates, arranged for his assassination in Cius.
Ariobarzanes a Persian noble, succeeded his kinsman or father, Mithridates or alternatively succeeded another Ariobarzanes I of Cius, as ruler of the Greek city of Cius in Mysia, governing for 26 years between 363 BC and 337 BC for the Persian king. It is believed that it was he and his family which in mid-360s BC revolted from the rule of the Persian king Artaxerxes II, but ended up in defeat by 362 BC. He was succeeded as governor of Cius by Mithridates, possibly his son or possibly a kinsman such as a younger brother.
Mithridates, son of Ariobarzanes prince of Cius, is mentioned by Xenophon as having betrayed his father, and the same circumstance is alluded to by Aristotle.
Ariobarzanes, Ariobarzan or spelled as Ario Barzan or Aryo Barzan, perhaps signifying "exalting the Aryans", sometimes known as Ariobarzanes I of Cius, was a Persian Satrap of Phrygia and military commander, leader of an independence revolt, and the first known of the line of rulers of the Greek town of Cius from which were eventually to stem the kings of Pontus in the 3rd century BCE. Ariobarzanes was apparently a cadet member of the Achaemenid dynasty, possibly son of Pharnabazus II, and part of the Pharnacid dynasty which had settled to hold Dascylium of Hellespont in the 470s BCE. Cius is located near Dascylium, and Cius seemingly was a share of family holdings for the branch of Ariobarzanes.
Datames was a general and satrap of Cappadocia and possibly Cilicia for the Achaemenid Empire. A Carian by birth, he was the son of Camissares by a Scythian or Paphlagonian mother. His father being satrap of Cilicia under Artaxerxes II, and high in the favour of that monarch, Datames became one of the king's bodyguards; and having in this capacity distinguished himself in the war against the Cadusii, was appointed to succeed his father in the government of his province. Here he distinguished himself both by his military abilities and his zeal in the service of the king; and reduced to subjection two officials who had revolted from Artaxerxes, Thyus, governor of Paphlagonia, and Aspis of Cataonia.
Camissares was a Carian, father of Datames, who was high in favour with the Persian Great King Artaxerxes II, by whom he was made satrap of a part of Cilicia bordering on Cappadocia. He fell in Artaxerxes' war against the Cadusii in 385 BC, and was succeeded in his satrapy by his son by a Scythian or Paphlagonian mother.
The Cadusii were an ancient Iranian people living in north-western Iran.
Autophradates was a Persian Satrap of Lydia, who also distinguished himself as a general in the reign of Artaxerxes III and Darius III.
Ariamnes I was satrap of Cappadocia under Persian suzerainty. Son of Datames and father of Ariarathes I and his brother Orophernes (Holophernes), Diodorus states that Ariamnes governed fifty years although it is unclear how this could be correct given the dates that his father Datames and his son Ariarathes I were satraps of Cappadocia.
Alexander was brother of Molon. On the accession of the Seleucid king Antiochus III, afterwards called the Great, in 223 BC, he entrusted Alexander with the government of the satrapy of Persis and Molon received Media. Up to that time, local rulers of Persis, the Fratarakas seem to have been in charge of the region, between circa 295 and 220 BC.
Hecatomnus of Mylasa or Hekatomnos was an early 4th-century BC ruler of Caria. He was the satrap (governor) of Caria for the Persian Achaemenid king Artaxerxes II. However, the basis for Hecatomnus' political power was twofold: he was both a high appointed Persian official and a powerful local dynast, who founded the hereditary dynasty of the Hecatomnids. The Hecatomnids followed the earlier autochthonous dynasty of the Lygdamids in Caria.
Idrieus, or Hidrieos was a ruler of Caria under the Achaemenid Empire, nominally a Satrap, who enjoyed the status of king or dynast by virtue of the powerful position his predecessors of the House of Hecatomnus created when they succeeded the assassinated Persian Satrap Tissaphernes in the Carian satrapy.
Neoptolemus was a Macedonian officer who served under Alexander the Great.
Artabazos II was a Persian general and satrap. He was the son of the Persian satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia, Pharnabazus II, and younger kinsman of Ariobarzanes of Phrygia who revolted against Artaxerxes II around 356 BC. His first wife was an unnamed Greek woman from Rhodes, sister of the two mercenaries Mentor of Rhodes and Memnon of Rhodes.
Pammenes was a Theban general of considerable fame who lived during the 4th century BC. He was connected with Epaminondas by political ties and ties of friendship. When Philip, the future king of Macedonia, was sent as a hostage to Thebes, he was placed under the care of Pammenes.
Tiribazus, Tiribazos or Teribazus was a Persian general and Persian satrap of Western Armenia and later satrap of Lydia in western Anatolia.
Agnonides was an ancient Athenian demagogue and sycophant, a contemporary of Theophrastus and Phocion. The former was accused by Agnonides of impiety, but was acquitted by the Areopagus, and Theophrastus might have ruined his accuser had he been less generous. Agnonides was opposed to the Macedonian party at Athens, and was one of the orators who urged the Athenians to fight in the Lamian War against the Macedonians after the death of Alexander The Great. After the Macedonian victory by Antipater, Agnonides was sent into exile. He returned to Athens with Alexander, son of Polysperchon, during the Second War of the Successors. Agnonides then induced the Athenians to sentence Phocion to death as a traitor, for his role as one of the oligarchs of Athens, installed by Antipater, and for allowing the port of Piraeus to fall into the hands of Nicanor. On behalf of the Assembly, he travelled to Polysperchon to argue against leniency being shown to Phocion. After Phocion was executed, the Athenians came to regret their conduct towards him, and put Agnonides to death to appease his manes.
Hagnon of Tarsus was an ancient Greek rhetorician, a philosopher, and a pupil of Carneades. Quintilian chides him for writing a book called Rhetorices accusatio in which he denied that rhetoric was an art.
Xenias of Arcadia was a Parrhasian general who commanded mercenaries in the service of Cyrus the Younger. In 405 BC, he accompanied Cyrus to court along with 300 men, after he had been summoned there by his father, Darius Nothus. After the return of Cyrus to western Asia, Xenias commanded several garrisons for him in Ionia, and with the greater portion of these troops, 4,000 hoplites, he joined the prince in his expedition against Artaxerxes II, leaving behind only a sufficient number of men to guard the citadels. At Tarsus a large body of his soldiers and of those of Pasion of Megara deserted and joined Clearchus of Sparta. Cyrus having afterwards allowed the latter to retain them, Xenias and Pasion abandoned the army at Myriandrus, and sailed away to Greece.
Syennesis was a ruler of ancient Cilicia in the 5th century BCE.
Sir William Smith was an English lexicographer. He also made advances in the teaching of Greek and Latin in schools.
The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology is an encyclopedia/biographical dictionary. Edited by William Smith, the dictionary spans three volumes and 3,700 pages. It is a classic work of 19th-century lexicography. The work is a companion to Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities and Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography.
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles (124 km2) with an estimated population of 685,094 in 2017, making it also the most populous city in New England. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999. The city is the economic and cultural anchor of a substantially larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. As a combined statistical area (CSA), this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth-largest in the United States.
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