Timothy Foecke (born 1963) is an American metallurgist, former Research Professor at the University of Maryland - College Park, and founder and former director of the NIST Center for Automotive Lightweightingat the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
Foecke was born in Missouri, moving at age two to Edina, Minnesota and at age twelve to a farm north of Howard Lake, Minnesota. He graduated from Howard Lake-Waverly High School in 1982. When he was a high school senior, and the chemistry teacher was ill for three months, he taught chemistry to the juniors.
Foecke received a bachelor's degree in 1986 and Ph.D. in materials science and engineering in 1991, both from the University of Minnesota.His thesis work, completed under Professor William W. Gerberich, involved the interaction of cracks and crack tip emitted dislocations on toughening in crystals and measured the effect of lattice flow stress on the critical stress intensity for dislocation emission from a Mode I crack in a series of single crystal alkali halide solid solutions.
He was awarded a National Research Council Post-Doctoral Fellowship at NIST to work with Dr. Robb M. Thomson in 1991 to study dislocation generation and motion in nanomaterials. He observed the generation and motion of Orowan dislocations from misfit interfacial sources in single crystal Cu/Ni nanolayered composites in an in situ TEM deformation experiment.
Foecke is a second cousin to NFL placekicker Adam Vinatieri (their mothers were first cousins) and is a third cousin of Evel Knievel.
Beginning in 1996, Foecke has been involved in the forensic examination of the structure and mechanical properties of metals recovered from the wreck of the RMS Titanic, and has been involved in expeditions in 1996, 1998, and 2004.He performed experiments on several hull fragments and definitively disproved the theory that the steel used to construct the hull of the Titanic was inferior and brittle. He was the originator of the "rivet theory" to explain the rapid sinking of the Titanic. His initial report on the hull steel and rivets was published in 1998. This study was greatly expanded in collaboration with Dr. Jennifer Hooper McCarty in her Ph.D. thesis work at Johns Hopkins University and was published in 2008 in the book "What Really Sank the Titanic - New Forensic Discoveries" (Citadel Press) and has been published as a German translation "Warum sank die Titanic wirklich?: Neue forensische Erkenntnisse (Springer Vieweg) (2012)".
Foecke was a member of the National Construction Safety Team that analyzed the collapse of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001,and was responsible for all failure analysis and fractography of steel components, forensic image analysis of images and video footage contributed by the public and media organizations to identify damage and failure mechanisms of the steel components impacted by the aircraft and ascertain the integrity of the fireproofing on the steel, and investigations looking into evidence of maximum temperatures reached by recovered building components.
Foecke led a project at NIST that created a finite element model of the wreck of the USS Arizona, attempting to estimate the remaining lifespan before the collapse and to provide a mechanism to test remediation techniques before implementing them on the monument.Foecke is also a consultant on conservation efforts on the wrecks of the CSS Hunley and USS Monitor.
Foecke has been involved in a project attempting to stabilize and conserve the Inconel components of the Apollo 11 first stage Rocketdyne F-1 engine recovered from the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean.
He has been involved in several television science productions as an interviewee and consultant, including Titanic - Anatomy of a Disaster (Discovery Channel), Titanic Live (Discovery Channel), Titanic - Answers from the Abyss (Discovery Channel), Collapse of the World Trade Center (Discovery Canada), Seconds from Disaster - Sinking of the RMS Titanic (National Geographic Channel), Living in a Material World (Discovery Science Channel), Return to Titanic (National Geographic Channel), Science of Superhuman Strength (Discovery Channel), and Humanless Earth (NOVA).
Foecke's work has been covered in the media extensively, with front-page articles in the New York Timesand Washington Post, as well as interviews with TV, radio and print media around the world. He was one of the first "mystery guests" on the NPR series "Wait, Wait, Don't Tell Me", appearing on the 5th ever broadcast on January 31, 1998.
Foecke helped the Science Museum of Maryland in Baltimore develop the exhibit "Science of the Titanic", which tours children's museums in the USand has delivered over 200 presentations to school groups from elementary to college on various forensic topics, including "What Sank the Titanic" and "Cool, Old, Famous Broken Stuff", attempting to interest kids in STEM field careers.
Foecke is the founder and past Director of the NIST Center for Automotive Lightweighting,the mission is helping the US auto industry get lighter, next-generation materials into vehicle bodies. A $4M, congressionally-funded project, current work involves complex, multipath, and high-rate testing of materials such as carbon fiber composites and advanced high-strength steels and using the data to generate constitutive models used in finite element design of car bodies and the needed manufacturing tools.
Foecke was a consultant to the National Capital Planning Commission on materials selection and durability for the Eisenhower Memorial on Maryland Avenue in Washington, DC.
From 2001-2012, Foecke was an Adjunct Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, MD, and since 2010 has been an Adjunct Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Maryland - College Park,teaching courses in thermodynamics/kinetics of materials, structure/property relationships in materials and he developed a new course in engineering materials selection, which after one year as an elective was moved by the department to be a required core class. In 2017 he expanded the curriculum with a class on high-strength metallic materials and a University Honors seminar course on the root causes of historic engineering failures. Foecke retired from federal government service after 28 years in November 2019 and joined the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Maryland - College Park full-time as a lecturing professor until May 2022.
Foecke has a Bacon Number of 2(Martin Sheen having been the narrator of the Discovery Channel documentary "Titanic-Anatomy of a Disaster", and co-starred in the movie "JFK" with Kevin Bacon), and an Erdős number of 4 (via Robb Thomson to Peter Bergmann To Ernst G. Straus to Paul Erdős), giving him an Erdős–Bacon number of 6.
US 10,761,002 - "Shear Loader and Performing Pure Mode II or Mixed Mode I and Mode II Shear Loading", with Matthias Merzkirch and Edward Pompa (September 1, 2020)
The Erdős number describes the "collaborative distance" between mathematician Paul Erdős and another person, as measured by authorship of mathematical papers. The same principle has been applied in other fields where a particular individual has collaborated with a large and broad number of peers.
Materials science is an interdisciplinary field of researching and discovering materials. Materials engineering is an engineering field of finding uses for materials in other fields and industries.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is an agency of the United States Department of Commerce whose mission is to promote American innovation and industrial competitiveness. NIST's activities are organized into physical science laboratory programs that include nanoscale science and technology, engineering, information technology, neutron research, material measurement, and physical measurement. From 1901 to 1988, the agency was named the National Bureau of Standards.
A rivet is a permanent mechanical fastener. Before being installed, a rivet consists of a smooth cylindrical shaft with a head on one end. The end opposite the head is called the tail. On installation, the rivet is placed in a punched or drilled hole, and the tail is upset or bucked, so that it expands to about 1.5 times the original shaft diameter, holding the rivet in place. In other words, the pounding or pulling creates a new "head" on the tail end by smashing the "tail" material flatter, resulting in a rivet that is roughly a dumbbell shape. To distinguish between the two ends of the rivet, the original head is called the factory head and the deformed end is called the shop head or buck-tail.
The collapse of the World Trade Center occurred on Tuesday, September 11, 2001, after two commercial airliners hijacked by Al-Qaeda terrorists were deliberately flown into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center complex in New York City as part of the September 11 attacks. The North Tower was the first building to be hit when American Airlines Flight 11 crashed into the skyscraper at 8:46 a.m., causing it to collapse at 10:28 after burning for one hour and forty-one minutes. At 9:03 a.m., the South Tower was struck by United Airlines Flight 175, collapsing at 9:58 a.m. after burning for 55 minutes. The twins' destruction caused major devastation throughout Lower Manhattan, and more than a dozen adjacent and nearby structures were damaged or destroyed by debris from the plane impacts or the collapses. Four of the five remaining World Trade Center structures were immediately crushed or damaged beyond repair as the towers fell, while 7 World Trade Center remained standing for another six hours until fires ignited by raining debris from the North Tower brought it down at 5:21 that afternoon. The hijackings, crashes, fires and subsequent collapses killed an initial total of 2,760 people. Toxic powder from the demolished high-rises was dispersed throughout the city and gave rise to numerous long-term health effects that continue to plague many who were in the vicinity of the towers, with at least three additional deaths reported. The 110-story towers are the tallest freestanding structures ever to be destroyed, and the death toll from the attack on the North Tower represents the deadliest terrorist act in world history.
Timothy Patrick Marshall is an American structural and forensic engineer as well as meteorologist, concentrating on damage analysis, particularly that from wind and other weather phenomena. He is also a pioneering storm chaser and was editor of Storm Track magazine.
Some conspiracy theories contend that the collapse of the World Trade Center was not solely caused by the airliner crash damage that occurred as part of the September 11 attacks, and the resulting fire damage, but by explosives installed in the buildings in advance. Controlled demolition theories make up a major component of 9/11 conspiracy theories.
Peter B. Sunderland is Professor of Fire Protection Engineering and Keystone Professor at the University of Maryland, College Park. He earned a Bachelor's Degree in mechanical engineering at Cornell University, a Master's Degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Massachusetts Amherst, and a Ph.D. in Aerospace Engineering from the University of Michigan. Prior to joining the University of Maryland he worked at the National Center for Microgravity Research at the NASA Glenn Research Center.
A cryogenic treatment is the process of treating workpieces to cryogenic temperatures in order to remove residual stresses and improve wear resistance in steels and other metal alloys, such as aluminum. In addition to seeking enhanced stress relief and stabilization, or wear resistance, cryogenic treatment is also sought for its ability to improve corrosion resistance by precipitating micro-fine eta carbides, which can be measured before and after in a part using a quantimet.
Discover Magazine is a 1992–2000 documentary television series that aired on the Disney Channel from 1992 to 1994 and then on Discovery Channel from 1996 to 2000. The series is named after the magazine of the same name, Discover Magazine. The Disney Channel series was narrated by actor Joseph Campanella. Discovery Channel series was hosted by Peter DeMeo from 1996 to 1998. The series was nominated for an Emmy Award for "Outstanding Informational Series" in 1996, 1997 for "Outstanding Non-Fiction Series", and one other time
James Robert Rice is an American engineer, scientist, geophysicist, and Mallinckrodt Professor of Engineering Sciences and Geophysics at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences,.
A blue iceberg is visible after the ice from above the water melts, causing the smooth portion of ice from below the water to overturn. The rare blue ice is formed from the compression of pure snow, which then develops into glacial ice.
Jack Gilman was a world-renowned material scientist in the field of mechanical properties of solids. In his lifetime he made major contributions to many areas of the field including dislocation behaviour of ceramics, disclination behaviour of polymers, and production of metal glasses.
Nikhil Gupta is a materials scientist, researcher, and professor based in Brooklyn, New York. Gupta is a professor at New York University Tandon School of Engineering department of mechanical and aerospace engineering. He is an elected Fellow of ASM International and the American Society for Composites. He is one of the leading researchers on lightweight foams and has extensively worked on hollow particle filled composite materials called syntactic foams. Gupta developed a new functionally graded syntactic foam material and a method to create multifunctional syntactic foams. His team has also created an ultralight magnesium alloy syntactic foam that is able to float on water. In recent years, his work has focused on digital manufacturing methods for composite materials and manufacturing cybersecurity.
The SS Western Reserve was a propeller lake freighter that was constructed in 1890 by the Cleveland Shipbuilding Company for Peter G. Minch, a ship's captain and operator who was pioneering the industrialization of bulk carrier freight service on the Great Lakes. She had a length of 301 feet, a beam of 41 feet and drew 21 feet of water. She and a ship of similar dimensions and building history, the SS W.H. Gilcher, were two of the first lake freighters to be constructed out of steel plate. Her steel construction made it possible for the vessel to carry heavier loads of freight than her wooden rival steamships.
The NIST World Trade Center Disaster Investigation was a report that the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) conducted to establish the likely technical causes of the three building failures that occurred at the World Trade Center following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. The report was mandated as part of the National Construction Safety Team Act, which was signed into law on October 1, 2002 by President George W. Bush. NIST issued its final report on the collapse of the World Trade Center's twin towers in September 2005, and the agency issued its final report on 7 World Trade Center in November 2008.
Hui Wu is a Chinese materials chemist and engineer. She is a senior scientist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Center for Neutron Research. Wu researches the synthesis, structure, solid state chemistry, and properties of complex oxides and hydrides. She received the Department of Commerce Bronze Medal for producing an entirely new route to synthesizing hydrogen-storage materials for fuel cells based on the complex chemistry of amines and boranes.
Aristos Christou is an American engineer and scientist, academic professor and researcher. He is a Professor of Materials Science, Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Professor of Reliability Engineering at the University of Maryland.
John William Fisher is a professor emeritus of civil engineering.