|Published||1944 Harper & Brothers(US)|
1945 Chatto & Windus (UK)
|Media type||Print (Hardback & Paperback)|
|Pages||305pp (first edition, hardback)|
|Preceded by||After Many a Summer|
|Followed by||Ape and Essence|
Time Must Have a Stop is a novel by Aldous Huxley, first published in 1944 by Chatto & Windus. It follows the story of Sebastian Barnack, a young poet who holidays with his hedonistic uncle in Florence. Many of the philosophical themes discussed in the novel are explored further in Huxley's 1945 work The Perennial Philosophy .
Time Must Have a Stop's title derives from Hotspur's death speech in Shakespeare's Henry IV, Part 1 Act V, Scene 4:
'But thought's the slave of life, and life time's fool; And time, that takes survey of all the world, Must have a stop'
The story initially follows Sebastian Barnack, a seventeen-year-old poet with the beauty of a della Robbia angel, and his desire to procure formal wear for a friend's party despite the wishes of his father John, an anti-fascist lawyer and socialist politician, who believes his son shouldn't live a decadent lifestyle while others suffer. Sebastian, in turn, believes his father's treatment of him comes from his strong physical resemblance to his late mother.
Sebastian's mission takes him to holiday with his rich uncle Eustace, a hedonistic and highly indulgent man who has a great fondness for his young nephew. While staying with his uncle, Sebastian—a virgin—embarks upon a love affair with Veronica Thwale, a widow who closely resembles Mary Esdaile, a character of his own imagination that he tells tales to his friends about. Eustace agrees to buy his nephew formal wear and even bestows a painting by Degas upon him. Sebastian has an intense sexual encounter with Mrs. Thwale, and he feels the holiday has been an unmitigated success. However, before the weight of Eustace's generosity can be felt he dies of a heart attack, leaving Sebastian in a deep panic about the future of his outfit. Sebastian steals the painting to sell to fund his tuxedo but an auditor of the late uncle's estate notes the missing Degas and accusations of theft against innocent employees multiply. Sebastian remains silent, while others are accused and suffer. Finally, he knows he must get the Degas back. Unable to do so himself, he enlists the help of his father's cousin Bruno, a deeply religious bookshop owner.
Meanwhile, the spirit of Eustace, an atheist, lives on and is used as both a narrative tool to allow Huxley to show the fate of characters across time and distance but also adds a hint of comic irony when Eustace's eccentric mother-in-law Mrs. Gamble hosts a seance to talk to her dead son-in-law but the second-rate medium involved garbles his message to Sebastian.
Bruno is able to retrieve the painting but at great cost – calling on friends that inadvertently make himself an enemy of the Italian Fascisti. The Fascist police imprison and mistreat Bruno, and hasten his declining health. Sebastian, driven by his guilt, undertakes the care of his dying uncle and while doing so is altered by the old man's sureness and spirituality. Bruno effects a transformation in Sebastian and, rather than adopting Eustace's hedonism, the young poet seeks a more religious outlook.
In the epilogue, set in the midst of the Second World War, Sebastian, who has lost a hand in combat, begins writing a comparative work of the world's religions, inspired by Bruno, that echoes Huxley's own Perennial Philosophy. His father, while not enamoured by his son's new approach to life, finally shows him respect.
Focusing on the spiritual health of the characters, Huxley explores many of the themes from his comparative study of mysticism, The Perennial Philosophy. The spuriousness of Mrs. Gamble's spiritualism, the limitations of Eustace's hedonism, and the paradox of Sebastian's weakness as a man and power as a creative artist are all contrasted with Bruno, whose spiritual contentment and non-attachment are presented by Huxley as the highest level of personal development. The book is laden with cultural and philosophical discussions amongst his characters with Huxley himself describing the work as his most successful attempt at "fusing idea with story". 
Aldous Leonard Huxley was an English writer and philosopher. He wrote nearly 50 books—both novels and non-fiction works—as well as wide-ranging essays, narratives, and poems.
Hedonism refers to a family of theories, all of which have in common that pleasure plays a central role in them. Psychological or motivational hedonism claims that human behavior is determined by desires to increase pleasure and to decrease pain. Normative or ethical hedonism, on the other hand, is not about how we actually act but how we ought to act: we should pursue pleasure and avoid pain. Axiological hedonism, which is sometimes treated as a part of ethical hedonism, is the thesis that only pleasure has intrinsic value. Applied to well-being or what is good for someone, it is the thesis that pleasure and suffering are the only components of well-being. These technical definitions of hedonism within philosophy, which are usually seen as respectable schools of thought, have to be distinguished from how the term is used in everyday language, sometimes referred to as "folk hedonism". In this sense, it has a negative connotation, linked to the egoistic pursuit of short-term gratification by indulging in sensory pleasures without regard for the consequences.
Psychological egoism is the view that humans are always motivated by self-interest and selfishness, even in what seem to be acts of altruism. It claims that, when people choose to help others, they do so ultimately because of the personal benefits that they themselves expect to obtain, directly or indirectly, from so doing.
The Doors of Perception is an autobiographical book written by Aldous Huxley. Published in 1954, it elaborates on his psychedelic experience under the influence of mescaline in May 1953. Huxley recalls the insights he experienced, ranging from the "purely aesthetic" to "sacramental vision", and reflects on their philosophical and psychological implications. In 1956, he published Heaven and Hell, another essay which elaborates these reflections further. The two works have since often been published together as one book; the title of both comes from William Blake's 1793 book The Marriage of Heaven and Hell.
Edgar Degas was a French Impressionist artist famous for his pastel drawings and oil paintings.
The paradox of hedonism, also called the pleasure paradox, refers to the practical difficulties encountered in the pursuit of pleasure. For the hedonist, constant pleasure-seeking may not yield the most actual pleasure or happiness in the long run—or even in the short run, when consciously pursuing pleasure interferes with experiencing it.
The perennial philosophy, also referred to as perennialism and perennial wisdom, is a perspective in philosophy and spirituality that views all of the world's religious traditions as sharing a single, metaphysical truth or origin from which all esoteric and exoteric knowledge and doctrine has grown.
Aristippus of Cyrene was a hedonistic Greek philosopher and the founder of the Cyrenaic school of philosophy. He was a pupil of Socrates, but adopted a very different philosophical outlook, teaching that the goal of life was to seek pleasure by adapting circumstances to oneself and by maintaining proper control over both adversity and prosperity. His view that pleasure is the only good came to be called ethical hedonism. Despite having two sons, Aristippus identified his daughter Arete as the "intellectual heiress" of his work.
Point Counter Point is a novel by Aldous Huxley, first published in 1928. It is Huxley's longest novel, and was notably more complex and serious than his earlier fiction.
Lucy Pevensie is a fictional character in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia series. She is the youngest of the four Pevensie children, and the first to find the Wardrobe entrance to Narnia in The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe. Of all the Pevensie children, Lucy is the closest to Aslan. Also, of all the humans who have visited Narnia, Lucy is perhaps the one that believes in Narnia the most. She is ultimately crowned Queen Lucy the Valiant, co-ruler of Narnia along with her two brothers and her sister. Lucy is the central character of the four siblings in the novels. Lucy is a principal character in three of the seven books, and a minor character in two others.
Of Human Bondage is a 1915 novel by W. Somerset Maugham. It traces the life and development of Philip Carey, and his formative, tortured and masochistic affair with waitress Mildred Rogers. The novel is generally agreed to be Maugham's masterpiece and to be strongly autobiographical in nature, although he stated, "This is a novel, not an autobiography; though much in it is autobiographical, more is pure invention." Maugham, who had originally planned to call his novel Beauty from Ashes, finally settled on a title taken from a section of Spinoza's Ethics. The Modern Library ranked Of Human Bondage No. 66 on its list of the 100 best English-language novels of the 20th century.
Leslie Poles Hartley was a British novelist and short story writer. Although his first fiction was published in 1924, his career was slow to take off. His best-known novels are the Eustace and Hilda trilogy (1944–47) and The Go-Between (1953). The latter was made into a film in 1971, as was his 1957 novel The Hireling in 1973. He was known for writing about social codes, moral responsibility and family relationships. In total, Hartley published 17 novels, six volumes of short stories and a book of criticism.
Rupert Psmith is a recurring fictional character in several novels by British author P. G. Wodehouse, being one of Wodehouse's best-loved characters.
The Perennial Philosophy is a comparative study of mysticism by the British writer and novelist Aldous Huxley. Its title derives from the theological tradition of perennial philosophy.
Renato Guttuso was an Italian painter and politician. His best-known works include Flight from Etna (1938–39), Crucifixion (1941) and La Vucciria (1974). Guttuso also designed for the theatre and did illustrations for books. Those for Elizabeth David’s Italian Food (1954), introduced him to many in the English-speaking world. A fierce anti-Fascist, "he developed out of Expressionism and the harsh light of his native land to paint landscapes and social commentary."
Mulliner Nights is a collection of short stories by P. G. Wodehouse. First published in the United Kingdom on 17 January 1933 by Herbert Jenkins, and in the United States on 15 February 1933 by Doubleday, Doran. The stories in the collection were originally published in magazines in the UK and the US between 1930 and 1932.
The Bellelli Family, also known as Family Portrait, is an oil painting on canvas by Edgar Degas (1834–1917), painted c. 1858–1867, and housed in the Musée d'Orsay. A masterwork of Degas' youth, the painting is a portrait of his aunt, her husband, and their two young daughters.
In philosophy, the Absolute is the term used for the ultimate or most supreme being, usually conceived as either encompassing "the amount of all being, actual and potential", or otherwise transcending the concept of "being" altogether. While the general concept of a supreme being has been present since ancient times, the exact term "Absolute" was first introduced by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, and features prominently in the work of many of his followers. In Absolute idealism and British idealism, it serves as a concept for the "unconditioned reality which is either the spiritual ground of all being or the whole of things considered as a spiritual unity".
The following bibliography of Aldous Huxley provides a chronological list of the published works of English writer Aldous Huxley (1894–1963). It includes his fiction and non-fiction, both published during his lifetime and posthumously.
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