Timken OK Load is a standardized measurement that indicates the possible performance of extreme pressure (EP) additives in a lubricating grease or oil. The units of measurement are pounds-force or kilograms-force. This measurement is performed using a special test machine and standard block and ring test specimens.
The test machine is based on a machine manufactured by the Timken Company from 1935 to 1972,It is now an industry recognized standard test to compare extreme pressure resistance of greases and oils in a reproducible way.
It is not to be confused with some smaller lubricity testers that are also often erroneously called Timken: the confusion originates from a now obsolete Italian brand TIMPKEN.[ citation needed ]
The test machine consists of a standardized bearing race mounted on a tapered arbor rotating at high speed. The race is brought into contact with a square steel test block under a constant load. The contact area is flooded with the lubricant or grease being tested. The Timken OK Load is the highest standard load at which the spinning bearing race produces no scouring mark on the test block, but only a uniform wear scar.
Timken OK Loads are listed on grease and oil property charts and are part of many specifications. It was once generally assumed that the measure and the film strength of the lubricant were directly related. Today, the primary purpose of the test is to determine whether EP additives are present and functioning. A measure of 35 pounds (16 kilograms-force or 155 newtons) or more means that EP additives are present and working well.
The Timken OK Load test methods are ASTM D-2509 for greases and ASTM D-2782 for oils.
There are a few portable version of smaller tester utilizing similar test method for public demonstration or for product showcase. Example of smaller and portable version: www.linhphan.vn/timken
A lubricant is a substance that helps to reduce friction between surfaces in mutual contact, which ultimately reduces the heat generated when the surfaces move. It may also have the function of transmitting forces, transporting foreign particles, or heating or cooling the surfaces. The property of reducing friction is known as lubricity.
A ball bearing is a type of rolling-element bearing that uses balls to maintain the separation between the bearing races.
Motor oil, engine oil, or engine lubricant is any one of various substances used for the lubrication of internal combustion engines. They typically consist of base oils enhanced with various additives, particularly antiwear additives, detergents, dispersants, and, for multi-grade oils, viscosity index improvers.. The main function of motor oil is to reduce friction and wear on moving parts and to clean the engine from sludge and varnish (detergents). It also neutralizes acids that originate from fuel and from oxidation of the lubricant (detergents), improves sealing of piston rings, and cools the engine by carrying heat away from moving parts.
A bearing is a machine element that constrains relative motion to only the desired motion, and reduces friction between moving parts. The design of the bearing may, for example, provide for free linear movement of the moving part or for free rotation around a fixed axis; or, it may prevent a motion by controlling the vectors of normal forces that bear on the moving parts. Most bearings facilitate the desired motion by minimizing friction. Bearings are classified broadly according to the type of operation, the motions allowed, or to the directions of the loads (forces) applied to the parts.
The Rockwell scale is a hardness scale based on indentation hardness of a material. The Rockwell test measures the depth of penetration of an indenter under a large load compared to the penetration made by a preload. There are different scales, denoted by a single letter, that use different loads or indenters. The result is a dimensionless number noted as HRA, HRB, HRC, etc., where the last letter is the respective Rockwell scale.
A hydraulic fluid or hydraulic liquid is the medium by which power is transferred in hydraulic machinery. Common hydraulic fluids are based on mineral oil or water. Examples of equipment that might use hydraulic fluids are excavators and backhoes, hydraulic brakes, power steering systems, automatic transmissions, garbage trucks, aircraft flight control systems, lifts, and industrial machinery.
Tribology is the science and engineering of interacting surfaces in relative motion. It includes the study and application of the principles of friction, lubrication and wear. Tribology is highly interdisciplinary, drawing on many academic fields, including physics, chemistry, materials science, mathematics, biology and engineering. People who work in the field of tribology are referred to as tribologists.
Synthetic oil is a lubricant consisting of chemical compounds that are artificially made. Synthetic lubricants can be manufactured using chemically modified petroleum components rather than whole crude oil, but can also be synthesized from other raw materials. The base material, however, is still overwhelmingly crude oil that is distilled and then modified physically and chemically. The actual synthesis process and composition of additives is generally a commercial trade secret and will vary among producers.
The National Lubricating Grease Institute is an international trade association that serves the grease and gear lubricant industry. It exists to promote research and development of lubrication technology. It also publishes industry standards for greases.
The NLGI consistency number expresses a measure of the relative hardness of a grease used for lubrication, as specified by the standard classification of lubricating grease established by the National Lubricating Grease Institute (NLGI). Reproduced in standards ASTM D4950(“standard classification and specification of automotive service greases”) and SAE J310(“automotive lubricating greases”), NLGI's classification is widely used. The NLGI consistency number is also a component of the code specified in standard ISO 6743-9“lubricants, industrial oils and related products — classification — part 9: family X (greases)”.
The dropping point of a lubricating grease is an indication of the heat resistance of the grease and is the temperature at which it passes from a semi-solid to a liquid state under specific test conditions. It is dependent on the type of thickener used and the cohesiveness of the oil and thickener of a grease. The dropping point indicates the upper temperature limit at which a grease retains its structure though is not necessarily the maximum temperature at which a grease can be used.
Gear oil is a lubricant made specifically for transmissions, transfer cases, and differentials in automobiles, trucks, and other machinery. It is of a high viscosity and usually contains organosulfur compounds. Some modern automatic transaxles do not use a heavy oil at all but lubricate with the lower viscosity hydraulic fluid, which is available at pressure within the automatic transmission. Gear oils account for about 20% of the lubricant market.
Grease is a solid or semisolid lubricant formed as a dispersion of thickening agents in a liquid lubricant. Grease generally consists of a soap emulsified with mineral or vegetable oil.
AW additives, or antiwear additives, are additives for lubricants to prevent metal-to-metal contact between parts of gears.
Extreme pressure additives, or EP additives, are additives for lubricants with a role to decrease wear of the parts of the gears exposed to very high pressures. They are also added to cutting fluids for machining of metals.
Oil additives are chemical compounds that improve the lubricant performance of base oil. The manufacturer of many different oils can utilize the same base stock for each formulation and can choose different additives for each specific application. Additives comprise up to 5% by weight of some oils.
Dry lubricants or solid lubricants are materials that, despite being in the solid phase, are able to reduce friction between two surfaces sliding against each other without the need for a liquid oil medium.
Aerospace bearings are the bearings installed in aircraft and aerospace systems including commercial, private, military, or space applications.
Founded in 2009, "Runningland Metrology & Testing (Shanghai) Co., Ltd" is a Shanghai-based accredited third party laboratory that specializes in instruments metering, condition monitoring, calibration and testing petrochemical products. The company was founded by David Zhou, who is an active member of STLE ASTM D2 Committee, and SAE, and co-founded by Ti Zhou who is a member of Shanghai Lubrication Trade Association. As a commercial third party laboratory, the organization also collaborates with educational institutions and research associations across China. Oil analysis is still a relatively developing idea and has become an increasingly important concept in The People's Republic of China. Because the oil analysis market in China is growing, Runningland has developed a lab that specializes in grease testing. In 2015, STLE has published a report indicating its previous activities and plans to expand into the China market by organizing the China Advisory Council, which consists of 15 prominent members of China's lubrication industry including David Zhou, Chairman and Co-founder of Runningland.
Total Base Number (TBN) is a measurement of basicity that is expressed in terms of the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide per gram of oil sample. TBN is an important measurement in petroleum products, and the value varies depending on its application. TBN generally ranges from 6–8 mg KOH/g in modern lubricants, 7–10 mg KOH/g for general internal combustion engine use and 10–15 mg KOH/g for diesel engine operations. TBN is typically higher for marine grade lubricants, approximately 15-80 mg KOH/g, as the higher TBN values are designed to increase the operating period under harsh operating conditions, before the lubricant requires replacement.