Timurid wars of succession

Last updated

The Timurid wars of succession were a set of three wars of succession in Central Asia waged between princes ( amirs ) of the Timurid Empire during the 15th century and early 16th century following deaths of important monarchs.

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ulugh Beg</span> Timurid sultan, astronomer and mathematician (1394–1449)

Mīrzā Muhammad Tāraghay bin Shāhrukh, better known as Ulugh Beg, was a Timurid sultan, as well as an astronomer and mathematician.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timurid Empire</span> Central Asian Persianate Turco-Mongol empire (1370–1507)

The Timurid Empire was a late medieval, culturally Persianate Turco-Mongol empire that dominated Greater Iran in the early 15th century, comprising modern-day Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, much of Central Asia, the South Caucasus, as well as parts of contemporary Pakistan, North India and Turkey. The empire was culturally hybrid, combining Turko-Mongolian and Persianate influences, with the last members of the dynasty being "regarded as ideal Perso-Islamic rulers".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Qara Qoyunlu</span> Persianate, Muslim Turkoman confederation (1374–1468)

The Qara Qoyunlu or Kara Koyunlu, also known as the Black Sheep Turkomans, were a culturally Persianate, Muslim Turkoman monarchy that ruled over the territory comprising present-day Azerbaijan, Armenia, northwestern Iran, eastern Turkey, and northeastern Iraq from about 1374 to 1468.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chagatai Khanate</span> 1226–1347 Turkicized Mongol khanate in Central Asia

The Chagatai Khanate, or Chagatai Ulus was a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate that comprised the lands ruled by Chagatai Khan, second son of Genghis Khan, and his descendants and successors. At its height in the late 13th century the khanate extended from the Amu Darya south of the Aral Sea to the Altai Mountains in the border of modern-day Mongolia and China, roughly corresponding to the area once ruled by the Qara Khitai.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Shah Rukh</span> Timurid ruler

Shah Rukh or Shahrukh Mirza was the ruler of the Timurid Empire between 1405 and 1447.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Muhammad Shaybani</span> Uzbek leader and warrior (1451–1510)

Muhammad Shaybani Khan was an Uzbek leader who consolidated various Uzbek tribes and laid the foundations for their ascendance in Transoxiana and the establishment of the Khanate of Bukhara. He was a Shaybanid or descendant of Shiban, the fifth son of Jochi, Genghis Khan's eldest son. He was the son of Shah-Budag, thus a grandson of the Uzbek conqueror Abu'l-Khayr Khan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sultan Husayn Bayqara</span> Timurid ruler of Herat (c.1469–1506)

Sultan Husayn Bayqara Mirza was the Timurid ruler of Herat from 1469 until May 4, 1506, with a brief interruption in 1470.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Miran Shah</span> Timurid Prince

Mirza Jalal-ud-din Miran Shah Beg, commonly known as Miran Shah, was a son of the Central Asian conqueror Timur, founder of the Timurid Empire.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Moghulistan</span> Mongol breakaway khanate of the Chagatai Khanate

Moghulistan, also called the Moghul Khanate or the Eastern Chagatai Khanate, was a Mongol breakaway khanate of the Chagatai Khanate and a historical geographic area north of the Tengri Tagh mountain range, on the border of Central Asia and East Asia. That area today includes parts of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and northwest Xinjiang, China. The khanate nominally ruled over the area from the mid-14th century until the late 17th century.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Khvandamir</span> Persian historian

Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad, commonly known as Khvandamir was a Persian historian who was active in the Timurid, Safavid and Mughal empires. He is principally known for his Persian universal history, the Habib al-siyar, which was regarded by both the Safavids and Mughals as their first official court account.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timur</span> Turco-Mongol military leader and conqueror (1336–1405)

Timur or Tamerlane was a Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire in and around modern-day Afghanistan, Iran, and Central Asia, becoming the first ruler of the Timurid dynasty. An undefeated commander, he is widely regarded as one of the greatest military leaders and tacticians in history, as well as one of the most brutal and deadly. Timur is also considered a great patron of art and architecture as he interacted with intellectuals such as Ibn Khaldun, Hafez, and Hafiz-i Abru and his reign introduced the Timurid Renaissance.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Abu Sa'id Mirza</span> Sultan of the Timurid Empire (1451–1469)

Abu Sa'id Mirza was the ruler of the Timurid Empire during the mid-fifteenth century.

Abul-Qasim Babur Mirza, was a Timurid ruler in Khurasan (1449–1457). He was the son of Ghiyath-ud-din Baysunghur ibn Shah Rukh Mirza, and thus a great-grandson of Amir Timur.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Battle of Akhsi</span> Part of Timurid Civil Wars

In the early 16th century, Sultan Mahmud Khan, the Chagatai Khan of Western Moghulistan, and Sultan Ahmad Alaq Khan, the Chagatai Khan of Eastern Moghulistan, decided to counter the growing power of the Uzbeks under Muhammad Shaybani. Sultan Ahmed Tambol had rebelled against his Timurid master Babur and declared his independence. But when Babur tried to reconquer his territory with the help of his uncles, Ahmed Tambol sought the assistance of the Uzbeks. The two Moghul brothers united their forces and launched a campaign against Tambol, but Muhammad Shaybani surprised the Khans and proved victorious in battle of Akhsi and took them both prisoner.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Occupation of Balkh (1447)</span> Battle of the Timurid Civil Wars

With the death of Shah Rukh in 1447 began the long drawn out Second Timurid Succession Crisis. His only surviving heir was his son Ulugh Beg who was at that time viceroy of Central Asia at Samarkand. Gawhar Shad and Abdal-Latif Mirza were with Shah Rukh when he died on his way back to Khurasan from Iran. Abdal-Latif Mirza became the commander of his grandfather's army and in conjunction with his father Ulugh Beg began operations against his cousins. As soon as Ulugh Beg heard of his father's death, he mobilized his forces and reached Amu Darya in order to take Balkh from his nephews. Balkh belonged to Ulugh Beg's brother Muhammad Juki who died in 1444. Balkh was divided among his sons Mirza Muhammad Qasim and Mirza Abu Bakr. However, Mirza Abu Bakr took his older brothers' possessions when Shah Rukh Mirza died. Ulugh Beg summoned Abu Bakr to his court and promised him his daughter in marriage. But while there he had him convicted of plotting against him and imprisoned at Kok Serai in Samarkand where he was later executed. Ulugh Beg then marched on Balkh and took that province unopposed.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timurid conquests and invasions</span> Wars and campaigns of the Timurids

The Timurid conquests and invasions started in the seventh decade of the 14th century with Timur's control over Chagatai Khanate and ended at the start of the 15th century with the death of Timur. Due to the sheer scale of Timur's wars, and the fact that he was generally undefeated in battle, he has been regarded as one of the most successful military commanders of all time. These wars resulted in the supremacy of Timur over Central Asia, Persia, the Caucasus, the Levant, and parts of South Asia and Eastern Europe, and also the formation of the short-lived Timurid Empire. Scholars estimate that his military campaigns caused the deaths of 17 million people, amounting to about 5% of the world population at the time.

Sultan Husayn Tayichiud was a noble of the Timurid Empire and a maternal grandson of its founder, the Central Asian conqueror Timur. Sultan Husayn held prominent positions in the Imperial army and accompanied his grandfather on several of his military campaigns. He was executed by his uncle Shah Rukh during the war of succession following Timur's death.

Rukn-ud-din Ala al-Dawla Mirza, also spelt Ala ud-Dawla and Ala ud-Daula, was a Timurid prince and a grandson of the Central Asian ruler Shah Rukh. Following his grandfather's death, Ala al-Dawla became embroiled in the ensuing succession struggle. Though he initially possessed a strategic advantage, he was eventually overtaken by his more successful rivals. Ala al-Dawla died in exile after numerous failed attempts to gain the throne.

Rustam Mirza was a Timurid prince and a grandson of the Central Asian conqueror Timur by his eldest son Umar Shaikh Mirza I.


  1. 1 2 3 Abazov, R. (2016). Palgrave Concise Historical Atlas of Central Asia. Springer. p. lxxii. ISBN   9780230610903 . Retrieved 18 November 2019.