Last updated
Tiplaxtinin structure.png
Clinical data
Other namesTiplaxtinin; PAI-039
ATC code
  • None
  • (1-benzyl-5-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)-1H-indol-3-yl)oxoacetic acid
CAS Number
PubChem CID
Chemical and physical data
Formula C24H16F3NO4
Molar mass 439.390 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
  • c2ccccc2Cn(cc1C(=O)C(O)=O)c4c1cc(cc4)-c(cc3)ccc3OC(F)(F)F

Tiplasinin (INN, USAN) or tiplaxtinin (PAI-039) is a drug which acts as an inhibitor of the serpin protein plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), thereby increasing activity of the enzymes tissue plasminogen activator and urokinase, which are involved in the blood clotting cascade. Inhibition of PAI-1 can help to prevent damage to blood vessel walls that occurs as a consequence of chronic high blood pressure, as well as preventing the formation of blood clots that can lead to stroke and heart attack, and potentially also providing a novel treatment mechanism to slow the development of diabetes and obesity. Tiplasinin was unsuccessful in human clinical trials due to an unfavourable risk to benefit ratio and the need for tight dose control to avoid provoking bleeding disorders, however it is still widely used in scientific research and newer drugs sharing the same mechanism of action are likely to be developed for medical use in future. [1] [2] [3]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Anticoagulant</span> Class of drugs

Anticoagulants, commonly known as blood thinners, are chemical substances that prevent or reduce coagulation of blood, prolonging the clotting time. Some of them occur naturally in blood-eating animals such as leeches and mosquitoes, where they help keep the bite area unclotted long enough for the animal to obtain some blood. As a class of medications, anticoagulants are used in therapy for thrombotic disorders. Oral anticoagulants (OACs) are taken by many people in pill or tablet form, and various intravenous anticoagulant dosage forms are used in hospitals. Some anticoagulants are used in medical equipment, such as sample tubes, blood transfusion bags, heart–lung machines, and dialysis equipment. One of the first anticoagulants, warfarin, was initially approved as a rodenticide.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thrombus</span> Blood clot

A thrombus, colloquially called a blood clot, is the final product of the blood coagulation step in hemostasis. There are two components to a thrombus: aggregated platelets and red blood cells that form a plug, and a mesh of cross-linked fibrin protein. The substance making up a thrombus is sometimes called cruor. A thrombus is a healthy response to injury intended to stop and prevent further bleeding, but can be harmful in thrombosis, when a clot obstructs blood flow through healthy blood vessels in the circulatory system.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Disseminated intravascular coagulation</span> Medical condition

Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a condition in which blood clots form throughout the body, blocking small blood vessels. Symptoms may include chest pain, shortness of breath, leg pain, problems speaking, or problems moving parts of the body. As clotting factors and platelets are used up, bleeding may occur. This may include blood in the urine, blood in the stool, or bleeding into the skin. Complications may include organ failure.

Fibrinolysis is a process that prevents blood clots from growing and becoming problematic. Primary fibrinolysis is a normal body process, while secondary fibrinolysis is the breakdown of clots due to a medicine, a medical disorder, or some other cause.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thrombolysis</span> Breakdown (lysis) of blood clots formed in blood vessels, using medication

Thrombolysis, also called fibrinolytic therapy, is the breakdown (lysis) of blood clots formed in blood vessels, using medication. It is used in ST elevation myocardial infarction, stroke, and in cases of severe venous thromboembolism.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Factor XII</span> Mammalian protein involved in blood clotting

Coagulation factor XII, also known as Hageman factor, is a plasma protein. It is the zymogen form of factor XIIa, an enzyme of the serine protease class. In humans, factor XII is encoded by the F12 gene.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tissue-type plasminogen activator</span> Protein involved in the breakdown of blood clots

Tissue-type plasminogen activator, short name tPA, is a protein involved in the breakdown of blood clots. It is encoded in the human by the PLAT gene. It is a serine protease found on endothelial cells, the cells that line the blood vessels. As an enzyme, it catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, the major enzyme responsible for clot breakdown. Human tPA has a molecular weight of ~70 kDa in the single-chain form.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Plasmin</span> Enzyme in human blood that degrades clots and other proteins

Plasmin is an important enzyme present in blood that degrades many blood plasma proteins, including fibrin clots. The degradation of fibrin is termed fibrinolysis. In humans, the plasmin protein is encoded by the PLG gene.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Streptokinase</span>

Streptokinase is a thrombolytic medication activating plasminogen by nonenzymatic mechanism. As a medication it is used to break down clots in some cases of myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, and arterial thromboembolism. The type of heart attack it is used in is an ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). It is given by injection into a vein.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Urokinase</span> Human protein

Urokinase, also known as urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), is a serine protease present in humans and other animals. The human urokinase protein was discovered, but not named, by McFarlane and Pilling in 1947. Urokinase was originally isolated from human urine, and it is also present in the blood and in the extracellular matrix of many tissues. The primary physiological substrate of this enzyme is plasminogen, which is an inactive form (zymogen) of the serine protease plasmin. Activation of plasmin triggers a proteolytic cascade that, depending on the physiological environment, participates in thrombolysis or extracellular matrix degradation. This cascade had been involved in vascular diseases and cancer progression.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Alpha 2-antiplasmin</span> Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Alpha 2-antiplasmin is a serine protease inhibitor (serpin) responsible for inactivating plasmin. Plasmin is an important enzyme that participates in fibrinolysis and degradation of various other proteins. This protein is encoded by the SERPINF2 gene.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1</span> Human protein

Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) also known as endothelial plasminogen activator inhibitor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SERPINE1 gene. Elevated PAI-1 is a risk factor for thrombosis and atherosclerosis.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Plasminogen activator</span> Type of protein

Plasminogen activators are serine proteases that catalyze the activation of plasmin via proteolytic cleavage of its zymogen form plasminogen. Plasmin is an important factor in fibrinolysis, the breakdown of fibrin polymers formed during blood clotting. There are two main plasminogen activators: urokinase (uPA) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Tissue plasminogen activators are used to treat medical conditions related to blood clotting including embolic or thrombotic stroke, myocardial infarction, and pulmonary embolism.

Neuroprotection refers to the relative preservation of neuronal structure and/or function. In the case of an ongoing insult the relative preservation of neuronal integrity implies a reduction in the rate of neuronal loss over time, which can be expressed as a differential equation. It is a widely explored treatment option for many central nervous system (CNS) disorders including neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, and acute management of neurotoxin consumption. Neuroprotection aims to prevent or slow disease progression and secondary injuries by halting or at least slowing the loss of neurons. Despite differences in symptoms or injuries associated with CNS disorders, many of the mechanisms behind neurodegeneration are the same. Common mechanisms of neuronal injury include decreased delivery of oxygen and glucose to the brain, energy failure, increased levels in oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, inflammatory changes, iron accumulation, and protein aggregation. Of these mechanisms, neuroprotective treatments often target oxidative stress and excitotoxicity—both of which are highly associated with CNS disorders. Not only can oxidative stress and excitotoxicity trigger neuron cell death but when combined they have synergistic effects that cause even more degradation than on their own. Thus limiting excitotoxicity and oxidative stress is a very important aspect of neuroprotection. Common neuroprotective treatments are glutamate antagonists and antioxidants, which aim to limit excitotoxicity and oxidative stress respectively.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Plasminogen activator inhibitor-2</span> Coagulation factor protein found in humans

Plasminogen activator inhibitor-2, a serine protease inhibitor of the serpin superfamily, is a coagulation factor that inactivates tissue plasminogen activator and urokinase. It is present in most cells, especially monocytes/macrophages. PAI-2 exists in two forms, a 60-kDa extracellular glycosylated form and a 43-kDa intracellular form.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Phenprocoumon</span> Drug

Phenprocoumon is a long-acting blood thinner drug to be taken by mouth, and a derivative of coumarin. It acts as a vitamin K antagonist and inhibits blood clotting (coagulation) by blocking synthesis of coagulation factors II, VII, IX and X. It is used for the prophylaxis and treatment of thromboembolic disorders such as heart attacks and pulmonary (lung) embolism. The most common adverse effect is bleeding. The drug interacts with a large number of other medications, including aspirin and St John's Wort. It is the standard coumarin used in Germany, Austria, and other European countries.

Staphylokinase is a protein produced by Staphylococcus aureus. It contains 136 amino acid residues and has a molecular mass of 15kDa. Synthesis of staphylokinase occurs in late exponential phase. It is similar to streptokinase.

Hypercoagulability in pregnancy is the propensity of pregnant women to develop thrombosis. Pregnancy itself is a factor of hypercoagulability, as a physiologically adaptive mechanism to prevent post partum bleeding. However, when combined with an additional underlying hypercoagulable states, the risk of thrombosis or embolism may become substantial.

The fibrinolysis system is responsible for removing blood clots. Hyperfibrinolysis describes a situation with markedly enhanced fibrinolytic activity, resulting in increased, sometimes catastrophic bleeding. Hyperfibrinolysis can be caused by acquired or congenital reasons. Among the congenital conditions for hyperfibrinolysis, deficiency of alpha-2-antiplasmin or plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) are very rare. The affected individuals show a hemophilia-like bleeding phenotype. Acquired hyperfibrinolysis is found in liver disease, in patients with severe trauma, during major surgical procedures, and other conditions. A special situation with temporarily enhanced fibrinolysis is thrombolytic therapy with drugs which activate plasminogen, e.g. for use in acute ischemic events or in patients with stroke. In patients with severe trauma, hyperfibrinolysis is associated with poor outcome. Moreover, hyperfibrinolysis may be associated with blood brain barrier impairment, a plasmin-dependent effect due to an increased generation of bradykinin.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Darexaban</span> Chemical compound

Darexaban (YM150) is a direct inhibitor of factor Xa created by Astellas Pharma. It is an experimental drug that acts as an anticoagulant and antithrombotic to prevent venous thromboembolism after a major orthopaedic surgery, stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation and possibly ischemic events in acute coronary syndrome. It is used in form of the maleate. The development of darexaban was discontinued in September 2011.


  1. Elokdah H, Abou-Gharbia M, Hennan JK, McFarlane G, Mugford CP, Krishnamurthy G, Crandall DL (July 2004). "Tiplaxtinin, a novel, orally efficacious inhibitor of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1: design, synthesis, and preclinical characterization". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 47 (14): 3491–4. CiteSeerX . doi:10.1021/jm049766q. PMID   15214776.
  2. Hennan JK, Elokdah H, Leal M, Ji A, Friedrichs GS, Morgan GA, et al. (August 2005). "Evaluation of PAI-039 [{1-benzyl-5-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]-1H-indol-3-yl}(oxo)acetic acid], a novel plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 inhibitor, in a canine model of coronary artery thrombosis". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 314 (2): 710–6. doi:10.1124/jpet.105.084129. PMID   15860572. S2CID   5568897.
  3. Brown NJ (October 2010). "Therapeutic potential of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 inhibitors". Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease. 4 (5): 315–24. doi: 10.1177/1753944710379126 . PMID   20660535. S2CID   9220969.