Tissue remodeling is the reorganization or renovation of existing tissues. Tissue remodeling can be either physiological or pathological. The process can either change the characteristics of a tissue such as in blood vessel remodeling, or result in the dynamic equilibrium of a tissue such as in bone remodeling. Macrophages repair wounds and remodel tissue by producing extracellular matrix and proteases to modify that specific matrix.
A myocardial infarction induces tissue remodeling of the heart in a three-phase process: inflammation, proliferation, and maturation. Inflammation is characterized by massive necrosis in the infarcted area. Inflammatory cells clear the dead cells. In the proliferation phase, inflammatory cells die by apoptosis, being replaced by myofibroblasts which produce large amounts of collagen. In the maturation phase, myofibroblast numbers are reduced by apoptosis, allowing for infiltration by endothelial cells (for blood vessels) and cardiomyocytes (heart tissue cells). Usually, however, much of the tissue remodeling is pathological, resulting in a large amount of fibrous tissue.By contrast, aerobic exercise can produce beneficial cardiac tissue remodeling in those suffering from left ventricular hypertrophy.
Programmed cellular senescence contributes to beneficial tissue remodeling during embryonic development of the fetus.
In a brain stroke the penumbra area surrounding the ischemic event initially undergoes a damaging remodeling, but later transitions to a tissue remodeling characterized by repair.
Vascular remodeling refers to a compensatory change in blood vessel walls due to plaque growth. Vascular expansion is called positive remodeling, whereas vascular constriction is called negative remodeling.
Tissue remodeling occurs in adipose tissue with increased body fat.In obese subjects, this remodeling is often pathological, characterized by excessive inflammation and fibrosis.
Wound healing refers to a living organism's replacement of destroyed or damaged tissue by newly produced tissue.
In biology, a connexon, also known as a connexin hemichannel, is an assembly of six proteins called connexins that form the pore for a gap junction between the cytoplasm of two adjacent cells. This channel allows for bidirectional flow of ions and signaling molecules. The connexon is the hemichannel supplied by a cell on one side of the junction; two connexons from opposing cells normally come together to form the complete intercellular gap junction channel. In some cells, the hemichannel itself is active as a conduit between the cytoplasm and the extracellular space, allowing the transference of ions and small molecules lower than 1-2 KDa. Little is known about this function of connexons besides the new evidence suggesting their key role in intracellular signaling. In still other cells connexons have been shown to occur in mitochondrial membranes and appear to play a role in heart ischaemia.
Fibrosis, also known as fibrotic scarring, is a pathological wound healing in which connective tissue replaces normal parenchymal tissue to the extent that it goes unchecked, leading to considerable tissue remodelling and the formation of permanent scar tissue.
Durotaxis is a form of cell migration in which cells are guided by rigidity gradients, which arise from differential structural properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Most normal cells migrate up rigidity gradients.
In cardiology, ventricular remodeling refers to changes in the size, shape, structure, and function of the heart. This can happen as a result of exercise or after injury to the heart muscle. The injury is typically due to acute myocardial infarction, but may be from a number of causes that result in increased pressure or volume, causing pressure overload or volume overload on the heart. Chronic hypertension, congenital heart disease with intracardiac shunting, and valvular heart disease may also lead to remodeling. After the insult occurs, a series of histopathological and structural changes occur in the left ventricular myocardium that lead to progressive decline in left ventricular performance. Ultimately, ventricular remodeling may result in diminished contractile (systolic) function and reduced stroke volume.
Osteopontin (OPN), also known as bone /sialoprotein I, early T-lymphocyte activation (ETA-1), secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1), 2ar and Rickettsia resistance (Ric), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SPP1 gene. The murine ortholog is Spp1. Osteopontin is a SIBLING (glycoprotein) that was first identified in 1986 in osteoblasts.
A myofibroblast is a cell phenotype that was first described as being in a state between a fibroblast and a smooth muscle cell.
Cardiomyoplasty is a surgical procedure in which healthy muscle from another part of the body is wrapped around the heart to provide support for the failing heart. Most often the latissimus dorsi muscle is used for this purpose. A special pacemaker is implanted to make the skeletal muscle contract. If cardiomyoplasty is successful and increased cardiac output is achieved, it usually acts as a bridging therapy, giving time for damaged myocardium to be treated in other ways, such as remodeling by cellular therapies.
Collagen IV is a type of collagen found primarily in the basal lamina. The collagen IV C4 domain at the C-terminus is not removed in post-translational processing, and the fibers link head-to-head, rather than in parallel. Also, collagen IV lacks the regular glycine in every third residue necessary for the tight, collagen helix. This makes the overall arrangement more sloppy with kinks. These two features cause the collagen to form in a sheet, the form of the basal lamina. Collagen IV is the more common usage, as opposed to the older terminology of "type-IV collagen". Collagen IV exists in all metazoan phyla, to whom they served as an evolutionary stepping stone to multicellularity.
Hepatic stellate cells (HSC), also known as perisinusoidal cells or Ito cells, are pericytes found in the perisinusoidal space of the liver, also known as the space of Disse. The stellate cell is the major cell type involved in liver fibrosis, which is the formation of scar tissue in response to liver damage.
Cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (CYR61) or CCN family member 1 (CCN1), is a matricellular protein that in humans is encoded by the CYR61 gene.
Cellular senescence is a phenomenon characterized by the cessation of cell division. In their experiments during the early 1960s, Leonard Hayflick and Paul Moorhead found that normal human fetal fibroblasts in culture reach a maximum of approximately 50 cell population doublings before becoming senescent. This process is known as "replicative senescence", or the Hayflick limit. Hayflick's discovery of mortal cells paved the path for the discovery and understanding of cellular aging molecular pathways. Cellular senescence can be initiated by a wide variety of stress inducing factors. These stress factors include both environmental and internal damaging events, abnormal cellular growth, oxidative stress, autophagy factors, among many other things.
Pancreatic stellate cells (PaSCs) are classified as myofibroblast-like cells that are located in exocrine regions of the pancreas. PaSCs are mediated by paracrine and autocrine stimuli and share similarities with the hepatic stellate cell. Pancreatic stellate cell activation and expression of matrix molecules constitute the complex process that induces pancreatic fibrosis. Synthesis, deposition, maturation and remodelling of the fibrous connective tissue can be protective, however when persistent it impedes regular pancreatic function.
Myocardial scarring is the accumulation of fibrous tissue resulting after some form of trauma to the cardiac tissue. Fibrosis is the formation of excess tissue in replacement of necrotic or extensively damaged tissue. Fibrosis in the heart is often hard to detect because fibromas, scar tissue or small tumors formed in one cell line, are often formed. Because they are so small, they can be hard to detect by methods such as magnetic resonance imaging. A cell line is a path of fibrosis that follow only a line of cells.
Galectin-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LGALS3 gene. Galectin-3 is a member of the lectin family, of which 14 mammalian galectins have been identified.
Myocardial infarction complications may occur immediately following a heart attack, or may need time to develop. After an infarction, an obvious complication is a second infarction, which may occur in the domain of another atherosclerotic coronary artery, or in the same zone if there are any live cells left in the infarct.
Telocytes are a type of interstitial (stromal) cells with very long and very thin prolongations called telopodes.
Cenderitide is a natriuretic peptide developed by the Mayo Clinic as a potential treatment for heart failure. Cenderitide is created by the fusion of the 15 amino acid C-terminus of dendroaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP) with the full C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) structure both peptide which are endogenous to humans. This peptide chimera is a dual activator of the natriuretic peptide receptors NPR-A and NPR-B and therefore exhibits the natriuretic and diuretic properties of DNP, as well as the antiproliferative and antifibrotic properties of CNP.
Human HGF plasmid DNA therapy of cardiomyocytes is being examined as a potential treatment for coronary artery disease, as well as treatment for the damage that occurs to the heart after MI. After MI, the myocardium suffers from reperfusion injury which leads to death of cardiomyocytes and detrimental remodelling of the heart, consequently reducing proper cardiac function. Transfection of cardiac myocytes with human HGF reduces ischemic reperfusion injury after MI. The benefits of HGF therapy include preventing improper remodelling of the heart and ameliorating heart dysfunction post-MI.
Human engineered cardiac tissues (hECTs) are derived by experimental manipulation of pluripotent stem cells, such as human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and, more recently, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to differentiate into human cardiomyocytes. Interest in these bioengineered cardiac tissues has risen due to their potential use in cardiovascular research and clinical therapies. These tissues provide a unique in vitro model to study cardiac physiology with a species-specific advantage over cultured animal cells in experimental studies. hECTs also have therapeutic potential for in vivo regeneration of heart muscle. hECTs provide a valuable resource to reproduce the normal development of human heart tissue, understand the development of human cardiovascular disease (CVD), and may lead to engineered tissue-based therapies for CVD patients.