Titanium gold

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In metallurgy, titanium gold (Ti-Au or Au-Ti) refers to an alloy consisting of titanium and gold. Such alloys are used in dentistry, [1] [2] ceramics and jewelry. [3] Like many other alloys, titanium gold alloys have a higher yield strength, tensile strength, hardness, and magnetism than either of its constituent metals. [4]


In July 2016, researchers led by Emilia Morosan at Rice University discovered that a titanium-gold alloy, β-Ti3Au, is an intermetallic alloy that is up to 4 times harder than pure titanium and most steels. [4] [5] [6]

In the 2008 film Iron Man , the title character wears an armor made from a titanium-gold alloy. [7] [8] According to actor Robert Downey Jr., who played the role of Iron Man, the suit fit him "like a gold-titanium glove". [9]

In the 2019 book The Secret Commonwealth (part of the universe of His Dark Materials trilogy), the alethiometer is revealed to be made primarily of a titanium-gold alloy. [10]

In S6:E22 of The Blacklist the show’s computer wizz, Aram Mojtabai, comments that the cage originally created to house Reddington is made of titanium gold alloy.

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Alloy</span> Mixture or metallic solid solution composed of two or more elements

An alloy is a mixture of chemical elements of which at least one is a metal. Unlike chemical compounds with metallic bases, an alloy will retain all the properties of a metal in the resulting material, such as electrical conductivity, ductility, opacity, and luster, but may have properties that differ from those of the pure metals, such as increased strength or hardness. In some cases, an alloy may reduce the overall cost of the material while preserving important properties. In other cases, the mixture imparts synergistic properties to the constituent metal elements such as corrosion resistance or mechanical strength.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Metal</span> Type of material

A metal is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appearance, and conducts electricity and heat relatively well. Metals are typically ductile and malleable. These properties are the result of the metallic bond between the atoms or molecules of the metal.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Solder</span> Alloy used to join metal pieces

Solder is a fusible metal alloy used to create a permanent bond between metal workpieces. Solder is melted in order to wet the parts of the joint, where it adheres to and connects the pieces after cooling. Metals or alloys suitable for use as solder should have a lower melting point than the pieces to be joined. The solder should also be resistant to oxidative and corrosive effects that would degrade the joint over time. Solder used in making electrical connections also needs to have favorable electrical characteristics.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Titanium</span> Chemical element, symbol Ti and atomic number 22

Titanium is a chemical element; it has symbol Ti and atomic number 22. Found in nature only as an oxide, it can be reduced to produce a lustrous transition metal with a silver color, low density, and high strength, resistant to corrosion in sea water, aqua regia, and chlorine.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Heat treating</span> Process of heating something to alter it

Heat treating is a group of industrial, thermal and metalworking processes used to alter the physical, and sometimes chemical, properties of a material. The most common application is metallurgical. Heat treatments are also used in the manufacture of many other materials, such as glass. Heat treatment involves the use of heating or chilling, normally to extreme temperatures, to achieve the desired result such as hardening or softening of a material. Heat treatment techniques include annealing, case hardening, precipitation strengthening, tempering, carburizing, normalizing and quenching. Although the term heat treatment applies only to processes where the heating and cooling are done for the specific purpose of altering properties intentionally, heating and cooling often occur incidentally during other manufacturing processes such as hot forming or welding.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Intermetallic</span> Type of metallic alloy

An intermetallic is a type of metallic alloy that forms an ordered solid-state compound between two or more metallic elements. Intermetallics are generally hard and brittle, with good high-temperature mechanical properties. They can be classified as stoichiometric or nonstoichiometic intermetallic compounds.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Maraging steel</span> Steel known for strength and toughness

Maraging steels are steels that are known for possessing superior strength and toughness without losing ductility. Aging refers to the extended heat-treatment process. These steels are a special class of very-low-carbon ultra-high-strength steels that derive their strength not from carbon, but from precipitation of intermetallic compounds. The principal alloying element is 15 to 25 wt% nickel. Secondary alloying elements, which include cobalt, molybdenum and titanium, are added to produce intermetallic precipitates. Original development was carried out on 20 and 25 wt% Ni steels to which small additions of aluminium, titanium, and niobium were made; a rise in the price of cobalt in the late 1970s led to the development of cobalt-free maraging steels.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tempering (metallurgy)</span> Process of heat treating used to increase the toughness of iron-based alloys

Tempering is a process of heat treating, which is used to increase the toughness of iron-based alloys. Tempering is usually performed after hardening, to reduce some of the excess hardness, and is done by heating the metal to some temperature below the critical point for a certain period of time, then allowing it to cool in still air. The exact temperature determines the amount of hardness removed, and depends on both the specific composition of the alloy and on the desired properties in the finished product. For instance, very hard tools are often tempered at low temperatures, while springs are tempered at much higher temperatures.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Titanium nitride</span> Ceramic material

Titanium nitride is an extremely hard ceramic material, often used as a physical vapor deposition (PVD) coating on titanium alloys, steel, carbide, and aluminium components to improve the substrate's surface properties.

Titanium alloys are alloys that contain a mixture of titanium and other chemical elements. Such alloys have very high tensile strength and toughness. They are light in weight, have extraordinary corrosion resistance and the ability to withstand extreme temperatures. However, the high cost of both raw materials and processing limit their use to military applications, aircraft, spacecraft, bicycles, medical devices, jewelry, highly stressed components such as connecting rods on expensive sports cars and some premium sports equipment and consumer electronics.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Orthodontic archwire</span> Wire used in dental braces

An archwire in orthodontics is a wire conforming to the alveolar or dental arch that can be used with dental braces as a source of force in correcting irregularities in the position of the teeth. An archwire can also be used to maintain existing dental positions; in this case it has a retentive purpose.

Titanium aluminide, commonly gamma titanium, is an intermetallic chemical compound. It is lightweight and resistant to oxidation and heat, but has low ductility. The density of γ-TiAl is about 4.0 g/cm3. It finds use in several applications including aircraft, jet engines, sporting equipment and automobiles. The development of TiAl based alloys began circa 1970. The alloys have been used in these applications only since about 2000.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Titanium hydride</span> Chemical compound

Titanium hydride normally refers to the inorganic compound TiH2 and related nonstoichiometric materials. It is commercially available as a stable grey/black powder, which is used as an additive in the production of Alnico sintered magnets, in the sintering of powdered metals, the production of metal foam, the production of powdered titanium metal and in pyrotechnics.

Alloy steel is steel that is alloyed with a variety of elements in total amounts between 1.0% and 50% by weight to improve its mechanical properties.

In metallurgy, solid solution strengthening is a type of alloying that can be used to improve the strength of a pure metal. The technique works by adding atoms of one element to the crystalline lattice of another element, forming a solid solution. The local nonuniformity in the lattice due to the alloying element makes plastic deformation more difficult by impeding dislocation motion through stress fields. In contrast, alloying beyond the solubility limit can form a second phase, leading to strengthening via other mechanisms.

Nickel aluminide typically refers to one of the two most widely used compounds, Ni3Al or NiAl, but can refer to most aluminides from the Ni-Al system. These alloys are widely used due to their corrosion resistance, low density and ease of production. Ni3Al is of specific interest as the strengthening γ' phase precipitate in nickel-based superalloys allowing for high temperature strength up to 0.7-0.8 of its melting temperature. Meanwhile, NiAl displays excellent properties such as low density (lower than that of Ni3Al), good thermal conductivity, oxidation resistance and high melting temperature. These properties make it ideal for special high temperature applications like coatings on blades in gas turbines and jet engines. However, both these alloys do have the disadvantage of being quite brittle at room temperature, with Ni3Al remaining brittle at high temperatures as well. However, it has been shown that Ni3Al can be made ductile when manufactured in single-crystal form rather than in polycrystalline form.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Colored gold</span> Various colors of gold obtained by alloying gold with other elements

Colored gold is the name given to any gold that has been treated using techniques to change its natural color. Pure gold is slightly reddish yellow in color, but colored gold can come in a variety of different colors by alloying it with different elements.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">High-entropy alloy</span> Alloys with high proportions of several metals

High-entropy alloys (HEAs) are alloys that are formed by mixing equal or relatively large proportions of (usually) five or more elements. Prior to the synthesis of these substances, typical metal alloys comprised one or two major components with smaller amounts of other elements. For example, additional elements can be added to iron to improve its properties, thereby creating an iron-based alloy, but typically in fairly low proportions, such as the proportions of carbon, manganese, and others in various steels. Hence, high-entropy alloys are a novel class of materials. The term "high-entropy alloys" was coined by Taiwanese scientist Jien-Wei Yeh because the entropy increase of mixing is substantially higher when there is a larger number of elements in the mix, and their proportions are more nearly equal. Some alternative names, such as multi-component alloys, compositionally complex alloys and multi-principal-element alloys are also suggested by other researchers.

Ti-6Al-7Nb is an alpha-beta titanium alloy first synthesized in 1977 containing 6% aluminum and 7% niobium. It features high strength and has similar properties as the cytotoxic vanadium containing alloy Ti-6Al-4V. Ti-6Al-7Nb is used as a material for hip prostheses.


  1. Fischer J (December 2000). "Mechanical, thermal, and chemical analyses of the binary system Au-Ti in the development of a dental alloy". J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52 (4): 678–86. doi:10.1002/1097-4636(20001215)52:4<678::AID-JBM12>3.0.CO;2-P. PMID   11033550.
  2. Franke, P.; Neuschütz, D. (2007). "Au-Ti (Gold - Titanium)". In Franke, P.; Neuschütz, D. (eds.). Au-Ti (Gold–Titanium). Landolt-Börnstein - Group IV Physical Chemistry. Vol. 19B5. SpringerMaterials. pp. 1–5. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-45280-5_32. ISBN   978-3-540-45279-9.
  3. Gafner, Geoffrey (1989). "The development of 990 gold–titanium: its production, use and properties". Gold Bull. 22 (4): 112–122. doi: 10.1007/BF03214709 .
  4. 1 2 Svanidze, Eteri; Besara, Tiglet; Ozaydin, M. Fevsi; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Wang, Jiakui K.; Radhakrishnan, Sruthi; Mani, Sendurai; Xin, Yan; Han, Ke (2016-07-01). "High hardness in the biocompatible intermetallic compound β-Ti3Au". Science Advances. 2 (7): e1600319. Bibcode:2016SciA....2E0319S. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1600319. ISSN   2375-2548. PMC   4956191 . PMID   27453942.
  5. "Titanium + gold = new gold standard for artificial joints". news.rice.edu. Retrieved 2016-09-17.
  6. "Lab discovers titanium-gold alloy that is four times harder than most steels". phys.org. Retrieved 2018-09-06.
  7. "Iron Man". May 2008.
  8. "Iron Man | bit-tech.net".
  9. http://www.theinsider.com/news/842818_Robert_Downey_Jr._Says_Iron_Man_Suit_Fits_Him_Like_Gold_Titanium_Gold%5B%5D
  10. The Secret Commonwealth. p. 313. ISBN   978-0553510669.