Liu & Golovatch, 2018
Tonkinosoma tiani, is a species of millipede belonging to the family Paradoxosomatidae. It is found from caves in southern China.
The specific name tiani is in honor of Prof. Mingyi Tian, one of collector from South China Agricultural University.
Body length is 25–27 mm in both sexes. In Head, frons densely pilose and vertex smooth. Antennae slender and long. Body uniformly dark to pale yellow. Body has 20 segments. Epiproct tip is truncated, with four spinnerets. Legs long and slender.
Gonopods are specialized appendages of various arthropods used in reproduction or egg-laying. In males, they facilitate the transfer of sperm from male to female during mating, and thus are a type of intromittent organ. In crustaceans and millipedes, gonopods are modified walking or swimming legs. Gonopods may be highly decorated with elaborate structures which may play roles in sperm competition, and can be used to differentiate and identify closely related species. Gonopods generally occur in one or more pairs, as opposed to the single (un-paired) reproductive organs such as the aedeagus of insects or the penis of harvestmen.
Desmoxytes, whose species are commonly known as the dragon millipedes, is a genus of millipede of the family Paradoxosomatidae found in southeast Asia. The genus was described by Ralph Vary Chamberlin in 1923 and reviewed by Sergei Golovatch and Henrik Enghoff in 1994. At least twenty-nine species are known from southeastern China to Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam. One species, D. planata, has also been observed in Sri Lanka, the Andaman Islands, Seychelles, Java, Great Coco Island, and Fiji; however, this species has expanded its range by being transported through human activity. Several species have only recently been discovered and some have yet to be officially described.
Desmoxytoides hasenpuschorum is a species of millipede and the only species in the monotypic genus Desmoxytoides. It lives in Australia. This species is closely related to the dragon millipedes of the genus Desmoxytes, and there is some speculation, even by Robert Mesibov, the genus authority, that the split may not be necessary. While Desmoxytoides hasenpuschorum is similar to the millipedes of Desmoxytes in paranotal form and metatergite sculpture, it has a simpler gonopod telopodite with an unprotected solenomere which gives it its own monotypic genus. This species has the ability to produce hydrogen cyanide to ward off predators.
Polydesmida is the largest order of millipedes, containing approximately 3,500 species, including all the millipedes reported to produce hydrogen cyanide (HCN).
Paradoxosomatidae, the only family in the suborder Paradoxosomatidea, is a family of flat-backed millipedes in the order Polydesmida. Containing nearly 200 genera and 975 species as of 2013, it is one of the largest families of millipedes. Paradoxosomatids occur on all continents except Antarctica, and can generally be distinguished by dorsal grooves on most body segments and a dumb-bell shaped gonopod aperture. Notable groups within the Paradoxosomatidae include the dragon millipedes of Southeast Asia, and the widely introduced Greenhouse Millipede Oxidus gracilis.
Antichiropus is a genus of millipede in the family Paradoxosomatidae. The genus is very distinctive in the form of the gonopod, which is typically coiled through at least a full circle. It is probably endemic to Australia. Some species have small ranges of less than 10000 km2, classifying them as short-range endemic invertebrates.
Orthomorpha is a genus of millipedes in the family Paradoxosomatidae containing approximately 50 species distributed in Southeast Asia.
Orthomorpha coarctata, the long-flange millipede, is a widely introduced species of Polydesmidan millipede of the family Paradoxosomatidae. It is presumed native to Southeast Asia but due to transport by humans occurs in tropical and sub-tropical areas throughout the world, including the Hawaiian Islands, the West Indies, Gulf Coast of North America, and the Galápagos Islands.
Casimir Albrecht Willem Jeekel (1922–2010) was a Dutch myriapodologist and entomologist known for his major contributions to the taxonomy of millipedes. His 1971 monograph Nomenclator Generum et Familiarum Diplopodorum is credited as launching the "modern era" of millipede taxonomy, and has been considered the "most important single work ever published on the Diplopoda". He served as director of the Zoological Museum Amsterdam, and authored over 150 works on the taxonomy of millipedes and other myriapods.
Desmoxytes rhinoceros is an aposematic species of dragon millipede in the genus Desmoxytes. It is only known from Champasak and Sekong Provinces in southern Laos.
Desmoxytes rhinoparva is a species of dragon millipede in the genus Desmoxytes. It is only known from Houaphanh Province of northeastern Laos.
Chamberlinius is a genus of flat-backed millipedes in the family Paradoxosomatidae. There are five species; 3 of which occur only Taiwan, one only in the Ryukyu Islands of southeast Japan, and one occurring in both areas. Individuals are 25–37 mm (0.98–1.46 in) long and up to 5.5 mm wide, colored in pale yellow to brown, sometimes with dark brown markings on the anterior portion of body segments.
Boreohesperus is a genus of paradoxosomatid millipedes containing six species native to Western Australia. The name refers to the northwestern distribution in Australia, deriving from Boreas, Greek god of the North, and hesperus, Latin for "west".
Anoplodesmus anthracinus is a species of millipedes in the family Paradoxosomatidae. It was previously thought to confined to Myanmar, the species was reported and documented from Malaysia and Sri Lanka in 2013.
Anoplodesmus luctuosus is a species of millipedes in the family Paradoxosomatidae. It is endemic to Sri Lanka, which was first documented from Ramboda. The species sometimes placed in the genus Polydesmus of the family Polydesmidae.
Paranedyopus simplex, is a species of millipedes in the family Paradoxosomatidae. It is endemic to Sri Lanka, first documented from Pundaloya. The species is greatly differ from other members of the genus due to reduced paraterga and more elaborate gonopods.
Desmoxytes planata, is a species of millipedes in the family Paradoxosomatidae. It is a pantropical species with a vast distribution due to human interference in transportation. It is native to Andaman Islands and introduced to Thailand, the Seychelles, Java, Sri Lanka, Fiji and probably in Malay Peninsula.
Tonkinosoma is a genus of millipede in the family Paradoxosomatidae. The genus contains three species, with a new species discovered in 2018. Type species was described from northern Vietnam. Now the species are ranges from Himalayan region and southeast Asian region.
Glyphiulus, is a genus of millipedes belonging to the family Paradoxosomatidae. It is the largest Southeast Asian millipede genus comprise about 47 to 57 species ranging from southern China, northern Laos, and northern Thailand in the north to southern Vietnam in the south. The type species shows a pantropical distribution. The number of species always changes due to continuous discoveries of new species.
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