|Spouse||Köchü Khatun (Buka Ujin)|
Toqoqan was a member of the ruling family of the Mongol Empire. He was a son of the Khan of the Golden Horde, Batu. Through his father, he was also a great-grandson of the Mongol emperor Genghis Khan. Though Toqoqan never reigned himself, many subsequent Khans were descended from him.
The Mongol Empire existed during the 13th and 14th centuries, and was the largest contiguous land empire in history. Originating in Mongolia, the Mongol Empire eventually stretched from Eastern Europe and parts of Central Europe to the Sea of Japan, extending northwards into parts of Siberia; eastwards and southwards into the Indian subcontinent, Mainland Southeast Asia and the Iranian Plateau; and westwards as far as the Levant and the Carpathian Mountains.
Khan is a title of unknown origin for a ruler or military leader. It first appears among the Göktürks as a variant of khagan and implied a subordinate ruler. In the Seljuk Empire it was the highest noble title, ranking above malik (king) and emir. In the Mongol Empire it signified the ruler of a horde (ulus), while the ruler of all the Mongols was the khagan or great khan. The title subsequently declined in importance. In Safavid Persia it was the title of a provincial governor, and in Mughal India it was a high noble rank restricted to courtiers. After the downfall of the Mughals it was used promiscuously and became a surname. Khan and its female forms occur in many personal names, generally without any nobiliary of political relevance, although it remains a common part of noble names as well.
The Golden Horde, Ulug Ulus was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire. With the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259 it became a functionally separate khanate. It is also known as the Kipchak Khanate or as the Ulus of Jochi.
His chief wife was Köchü Khatun, also known as Buka Ujin of the Oirats.Her father (or possibly brother) was Buqa-Temür, who was himself a grandson of Genghis Khan through his daughter Checheikhen.
Oirats are the westernmost group of the Mongols whose ancestral home is in the Altai region of Xinjiang and western Mongolia.
Genghis Khan was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death. He came to power by uniting many of the nomadic tribes of Northeast Asia. After founding the Empire and being proclaimed Genghis Khan, he launched the Mongol invasions that conquered most of Eurasia. Campaigns initiated in his lifetime include those against the Qara Khitai, Caucasus, and Khwarazmian, Western Xia and Jin dynasties. These campaigns were often accompanied by large-scale massacres of the civilian populations, especially in the Khwarazmian– and Western Xia–controlled lands. By the end of his life, the Mongol Empire occupied a substantial portion of Central Asia and China.
Checheikhen was a daughter of Genghis Khan and his first wife Börte.
Toqoqan had five sons, of whom the eldest, Tartu, became father of the Khan Talabuga. Two further sons, Mengu-Timur and Tode Mongke, both by Köchü Khatun, were also Khans of the Golden Horde.
Talabuga, Tulabuga, Talubuga or Telubuga was the khan of the Golden Horde, division of the Mongol Empire between 1287 and 1291. He was the son of Tartu and great-grandson of Batu Khan. He assumed the throne in the Golden Horde in 1287 with the help of Nogai Khan, but was dethroned four years later by the same, replaced by Tokhta.
Mengu-Timur or Möngke Temür (?–1280), son of Toqoqan Khan and Buka Ujin of Oirat and the grandson of Batu Khan. He was a khan of the Golden Horde, a division of the Mongol Empire in 1266–1280. His name literally means "Eternal Iron" in the Mongolian language.
Tuda Mengu, also known as Tode Mongke, Tudamongke, was khan of the Golden Horde, division of the Mongol Empire from 1280 to 1287.
Batu Khan, also known as Sain Khan and Tsar Batu, was a Mongol ruler and founder of the Golden Horde, a division of the Mongol Empire. Batu was a son of Jochi and grandson of Genghis Khan. His ulus was the chief state of the Golden Horde, which ruled Rus', Volga Bulgaria, Cumania, and the Caucasus for around 250 years, after also destroying the armies of Poland and Hungary. Batu or Bat literally means "firm" in the Mongolian language. After the deaths of Genghis Khan's sons, he became the most respected prince, called agha, in the Mongol Empire.
Rashīd al-Dīn Ṭabīb, also known as Rashīd al-Dīn Faḍlullāh Hamadānī, was a statesman, historian and physician in Ilkhanate-ruled Iran. He was born into a Persian Jewish family from Hamadan.
Töregene Khatun was the Great Khatun and regent of the Mongol Empire from the death of her husband Ögedei Khan in 1241 until the election of her eldest son Güyük Khan in 1246.
Abaqa Khan, was the second Mongol ruler (Ilkhan) of the Ilkhanate. The son of Hulagu Khan and Lady Yesünčin. He was the grandson of Tolui and reigned from 1265 to 1282 and was succeeded by his brother Tekuder. Much of Abaqa's reign was consumed with civil wars in the Mongol Empire, such as those between the Ilkhanate and the northern khanate of the Golden Horde. Abaqa also engaged in unsuccessful attempts at military invasion of Syria, including the Second Battle of Homs.
A Borjigin is a member of the sub-clan, which started with Yesugei, of the Kiyat clan. Yesugei's descendants were thus said to be Kiyat-Borjigin. The senior Borjigid provided ruling princes for Mongolia and Inner Mongolia until the 20th century. The clan formed the ruling class among the Mongols and some other peoples of Central Asia and Eastern Europe. Today, the Borjigid are found in most of Mongolia, Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang, although genetic research has shown that descent from Genghis Khan is common in Central Asia.
Sorghaghtani Beki or Bekhi, also written Sorkaktani, Sorkhokhtani, Sorkhogtani, Siyurkuktiti was a Keraite princess and daughter-in-law of Genghis Khan. Married to Tolui, Genghis' youngest son, Sorghaghtani Beki became one of the most powerful and competent people in the Mongol Empire. She made policy decisions at a pivotal moment that led to the transition of the Mongol Empire towards a more cosmopolitan and sophisticated style of administration. She raised her sons to be leaders, and maneuvered the family politics so that all four of her sons, Möngke Khan, Hulagu Khan, Ariq Böke, and Kublai Khan, went on to inherit the legacy of their grandfather.
Nogai, also called Nohai, Nokhai, Nogay, Noqai, Kara Nokhai, and Isa Nogai, was a general and de facto ruler of the Golden Horde and a great-great-grandson of Genghis Khan. His grandfather was Bo'al/Baul/Teval Khan, the 7th son of Jochi. Nogai Khan was also a notable convert to Islam.
Berke Khan was a Mongolian military commander and ruler of the Golden Horde who effectively consolidated the power of the Blue Horde and White Horde from 1257 to 1266. He succeeded his brother Batu Khan of the Blue Horde (West) and was responsible for the first official establishment of Islam in a khanate of the Mongol Empire. He allied with the Egyptian Mamluks against another Mongol khanate based in Persia, the Ilkhanate. Berke supported Ariq Böke in the Toluid Civil War, but did not intervene militarily in the war due to the fact of he also occupied in his own war.
Urus Khan was the eighth Khan of the White Horde and a disputed Khan of the Blue Horde; he was a direct descendant of Genghis Khan. Urus himself was the direct ancestor of the khans of the Kazakh Khanate.
Oghul Qaimish was the principal wife of Güyük Khan and ruled as regent over the Mongol Empire after the death of her husband in 1248. She was a descendant of the Mergid tribe. However, H.H. Howorth believed that she was an Oirat.
Öljeitü, Oljeitu, Olcayto or Uljeitu, Öljaitu, Ölziit, also known as Muhammad Khodabandeh, was the eighth Ilkhanid dynasty ruler from 1304 to 1316 in Tabriz, Iran. His name "Ölziit" means "blessed" in the Mongolian language.
Büri was a son of Mutukan and a grandson of Chagatai Khan. According to Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, Büri's mother was a wife of Chagatai Khan's one official. She was a beauty, and Mutukan was attracted by her while she served in the Khan's ger. Mutukan made her pregnant and instead of marrying her, he took her baby, Büri.
The Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia, or the Mongol invasion of Iran, from 1219 to 1221 marked the beginning of the Mongol conquest of the Islamic states. The Mongol expansion would ultimately culminate in the conquest of virtually all of Asia with the exception of Japan, the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt, Siberia, and most of the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia.
Khüchü was the Khan of the White Horde between c. 1280-1302. He was the eldest son of Sartaqtay and Qujiyan of the Qongirat and a grandson of Orda Khan.
Qun-Quran or Qun-Qiran was the khan of the White Horde, left wing of the Golden Horde.
Abu Sa'id Bahadur Khan, also spelt Abusaid Bahador Khan, Abu Sa'id Behauder, was the ninth ruler of Ilkhanate c. 1316-1335. This kingdom encompasses the present day countries of Iran, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Armenia, as well as portions of Iraq, Turkey, Afghanistan, and Pakistan.