Toqoqan

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Toqoqan
SpouseKöchü Khatun (Buka Ujin)
IssueTartu
Mengu-Timur
Tode Mongke
Toqïqonqa
Ügechi
House Borjigin
Dynasty Golden Horde
Father Batu Khan

Toqoqan was a member of the ruling family of the Mongol Empire. He was a son of the Khan of the Golden Horde, Batu. Through his father, he was also a great-grandson of the Mongol emperor Genghis Khan. Though Toqoqan never reigned himself, many subsequent Khans were descended from him. [1]

Mongol Empire former country in Asia and Europe

The Mongol Empire existed during the 13th and 14th centuries, and was the largest contiguous land empire in history. Originating in Mongolia, the Mongol Empire eventually stretched from Eastern Europe and parts of Central Europe to the Sea of Japan, extending northwards into parts of Siberia; eastwards and southwards into the Indian subcontinent, Mainland Southeast Asia and the Iranian Plateau; and westwards as far as the Levant and the Carpathian Mountains.

Khan is a title of unknown origin for a ruler or military leader. It first appears among the Göktürks as a variant of khagan and implied a subordinate ruler. In the Seljuk Empire it was the highest noble title, ranking above malik (king) and emir. In the Mongol Empire it signified the ruler of a horde (ulus), while the ruler of all the Mongols was the khagan or great khan. The title subsequently declined in importance. In Safavid Persia it was the title of a provincial governor, and in Mughal India it was a high noble rank restricted to courtiers. After the downfall of the Mughals it was used promiscuously and became a surname. Khan and its female forms occur in many personal names, generally without any nobiliary of political relevance, although it remains a common part of noble names as well.

Golden Horde Mongol Khanate

The Golden Horde, Ulug Ulus was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire. With the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259 it became a functionally separate khanate. It is also known as the Kipchak Khanate or as the Ulus of Jochi.

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His chief wife was Köchü Khatun, also known as Buka Ujin of the Oirats. [2] [3] Her father (or possibly brother) was Buqa-Temür, who was himself a grandson of Genghis Khan through his daughter Checheikhen. [4] [5]

Oirats ethnic group

Oirats are the westernmost group of the Mongols whose ancestral home is in the Altai region of Xinjiang and western Mongolia.

Genghis Khan founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire

Genghis Khan was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death. He came to power by uniting many of the nomadic tribes of Northeast Asia. After founding the Empire and being proclaimed Genghis Khan, he launched the Mongol invasions that conquered most of Eurasia. Campaigns initiated in his lifetime include those against the Qara Khitai, Caucasus, and Khwarazmian, Western Xia and Jin dynasties. These campaigns were often accompanied by large-scale massacres of the civilian populations, especially in the Khwarazmian– and Western Xia–controlled lands. By the end of his life, the Mongol Empire occupied a substantial portion of Central Asia and China.

Checheikhen was a daughter of Genghis Khan and his first wife Börte.

Toqoqan had five sons, of whom the eldest, Tartu, became father of the Khan Talabuga. Two further sons, Mengu-Timur and Tode Mongke, both by Köchü Khatun, were also Khans of the Golden Horde. [6]

Talabuga Khan

Talabuga, Tulabuga, Talubuga or Telubuga was the khan of the Golden Horde, division of the Mongol Empire between 1287 and 1291. He was the son of Tartu and great-grandson of Batu Khan. He assumed the throne in the Golden Horde in 1287 with the help of Nogai Khan, but was dethroned four years later by the same, replaced by Tokhta.

Mengu-Timur Khan

Mengu-Timur or Möngke Temür (?–1280), son of Toqoqan Khan and Buka Ujin of Oirat and the grandson of Batu Khan. He was a khan of the Golden Horde, a division of the Mongol Empire in 1266–1280. His name literally means "Eternal Iron" in the Mongolian language.

Tode Mongke Khan

Tuda Mengu, also known as Tode Mongke, Tudamongke, was khan of the Golden Horde, division of the Mongol Empire from 1280 to 1287.

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References

  1. Polo, Marco (2016). The Description of the World. Translated by Sharon Kinoshita. Hackett Publishing Company, Incorporated. p. XXXIV. ISBN   978-1-62466-438-0.
  2. Rashid-al-Din Hamadani (1999). Compendium of Chronicles: a History of the Mongols: Part 2. Translated by Wheeler Thackston. Harvard University, Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations. p. 352.
  3. Lane, George (25 January 2018). A Short History of the Mongols. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 84. ISBN   978-1-78673-339-9.
  4. Broadbridge, Anne F. (2018). Women and the Making of the Mongol Empire. Cambridge University Press. p. 241. ISBN   978-1-108-42489-9.
  5. Zhao, George Qingzhi (2008). Marriage as Political Strategy and Cultural Expression: Mongolian Royal Marriages from World Empire to Yuan Dynasty. Peter Lang. p. 141. ISBN   978-1-4331-0275-2.
  6. Rashid-al-Din Hamadani (1971). The Successors of Genghis Khan ; Transl. from the Persian of Rashīd Al-Dīn. Translated by John Andrew Boyle. Columbia University Press. pp. 109–10.

Further reading