Trift Glacier in September 2007
|Location||Canton of Berne, Switzerland|
The Trift Glacier (German : Triftgletscher) is a 5 km (3.1 mi) long glacier (2005) in the Urner Alps near Gadmen, in the extreme east of the canton Berne in Switzerland.
In 1973 glacier was 5.75 km long, 3 km wide at the top and around 500 m wide at it tongue. Overall it covered an area of 16.55 km2 (6.39 sq mi) including glacier sides.
Since the end of the Little Ice Age, the Trift Glacier is shrinking. The valley in which lake Triftsee is today used to be filled by a large mass of ice well into the 20th century. In the 1990s small puddles of melt water began to form at the glacier tongue and gradually became larger. In the hot summer of 2003, the lake quickly grew and the glacier tongue sank into the melt water and dissolved in it, which led to a shrinkage of the glacier of more than 136 m within a year. Since 1861, the glacier has shrunk a total of 2771 meters.
At an altitude of 2520 meters above sea level is the Trifthutte , a mountain hut of the Schweizer Alpen-Club (SAC) that was only accessible via the glacier tongue. Due to the melting of the glacier, in 2004 people were forced to build a bridge, the Triftbrücke to reach this hut.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight. A glacier forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation over many years, often centuries. Glaciers slowly deform and flow due to stresses induced by their weight, creating crevasses, seracs, and other distinguishing features. They also abrade rock and debris from their substrate to create landforms such as cirques and moraines. Glaciers form only on land and are distinct from the much thinner sea ice and lake ice that form on the surface of bodies of water.
The Alpine region of Switzerland, conventionally referred to as the Swiss Alps, represents a major natural feature of the country and is, along with the Swiss Plateau and the Swiss portion of the Jura Mountains, one of its three main physiographic regions. The Swiss Alps extend over both the Western Alps and the Eastern Alps, encompassing an area sometimes called Central Alps. While the northern ranges from the Bernese Alps to the Appenzell Alps are entirely in Switzerland, the southern ranges from the Mont Blanc massif to the Bernina massif are shared with other countries such as France, Italy, Austria and Liechtenstein.
The Aletsch Glacier or Great Aletsch Glacier is the largest glacier in the Alps. It has a length of about 23 km (14 mi) (2014), has about a volume of 15.4 km3 (3.7 cu mi) (2011), and covers about 81.7 km2 (2011) in the eastern Bernese Alps in the Swiss canton of Valais. The Aletsch Glacier is composed of four smaller glaciers converging at Concordia Place, where its thickness was measured by the ETH to be still near 1 km (3,300 ft). It then continues towards the Rhône valley before giving birth to the Massa. The Aletsch Glacier is – like most glaciers in the world today – a retreating glacier. As of 2016, since 1980 it lost 1.3 kilometres (0.81 mi) of its length, since 1870 3.2 kilometres (2.0 mi), and lost also more than 300 metres (980 ft) of its thickness.
Jökulsárlón is a large glacial lake in southeast Iceland, on the edge of Vatnajökull National Park. Situated at the head of the Breiðamerkurjökull glacier, it developed into a lake after the glacier started receding from the edge of the Atlantic Ocean. The lake has grown since then at varying rates because of melting of the glaciers. It is now 1.5 km (0.93 mi) away from the ocean's edge and covers an area of about 18 km2 (6.9 sq mi). In 2009 it was reported to be the deepest lake in Iceland, at over 248 m (814 ft), as glacial retreat extended its boundaries. The size of the lake has increased fourfold since the 1970s. It is considered as one of the natural wonders of Iceland.
Haupapa / Tasman Glacier is the largest glacier in New Zealand, and one of several large glaciers which flow south and east towards the Mackenzie Basin from the Southern Alps in New Zealand's South Island.
The Rhône Glacier is a glacier in the Swiss Alps and the source of the river Rhône and one of the primary contributors to Lake Geneva in the far eastern end of the Swiss canton of Valais. Because the glacier is located close to the Furka Pass road it is easily accessible.
The Swiss Plateau or Central Plateau is one of the three major landscapes in Switzerland, lying between the Jura Mountains and the Swiss Alps. It covers about 30% of the Swiss surface area, and is partly flat but mostly hilly. The average height is between 400 metres (0.25 mi) and 700 metres (0.43 mi) AMSL. It is by far the most densely populated region of Switzerland, the center of economy and important transportation.
Thwaites Glacier, sometimes referred to as the Doomsday Glacier, is an unusually broad and fast Antarctic glacier flowing into Pine Island Bay, part of the Amundsen Sea, east of Mount Murphy, on the Walgreen Coast of Marie Byrd Land. Its surface speeds exceed 2 kilometres per year near its grounding line. Its fastest flowing grounded ice is centred between 50 and 100 kilometres east of Mount Murphy. It was named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names after Fredrik T. Thwaites (1883–1961), a glacial geologist, geomorphologist and professor emeritus at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. The historian Reuben Gold Thwaites was his father.
The retreat of glaciers since 1850 affects the availability of fresh water for irrigation and domestic use, mountain recreation, animals and plants that depend on glacier-melt, and, in the longer term, the level of the oceans. Studied by glaciologists, the temporal coincidence of glacier retreat with the measured increase of atmospheric greenhouse gases is often cited as an evidentiary underpinning of global warming. Mid-latitude mountain ranges such as the Himalayas, Alps, Rocky Mountains, Cascade Range, and the southern Andes, as well as isolated tropical summits such as Mount Kilimanjaro in Africa, are showing some of the largest proportionate glacial losses.
Gadmen is a former municipality in the Interlaken-Oberhasli administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.
The Gorner Glacier is a valley glacier found on the west side of the Monte Rosa massif close to Zermatt in the canton of Valais, Switzerland. It is about 12.4 km (7.7 mi) long (2014) and 1 to 1.5 km wide. The entire glacial area of the glacier related to Gorner Glacier is 57 km2 (22 sq mi) (1999), which makes it the second largest glacial system in the Alps after the Aletsch Glacier system; however it ranks only third in length behind the Aletsch and Fiescher Glacier, respectively. Numerous smaller glaciers connect with the Gorner Glacier. Its (former) tributaries are : Gornergletscher, Monte Rosa Gletscher, Grenzgletscher, Zwillingsgletscher, Schwärzegletscher, Breithorngletscher, Triftjigletscher, and Unterer Theodulgletscher.
The Plaine Morte Glacier is a glacier located at an elevation of 2,750 m (9,020 ft), in the canton of Bern above Lenk and in the Valais above Crans-Montana in Switzerland. The ice field, which covers 7.88 square kilometres (3.04 sq mi), is located below the mountain of Wildstrubel in the Bernese Alps. Its largest tongue is also called in German Rezligletscher or Rätzligletscher.
The Fiescher Glacier is a valley glacier on the south side of the Bernese Alps in the canton of Valais, Switzerland. 16 km (9.9 mi) in length, it is the second longest glacier in the Alps. The glacier covers an area of 33 km2 (13 sq mi).
The Findel Glacier is a valley glacier in the Monte Rosa massif east of Zermatt in the Pennine Alps. It has a length of 8 km (5.0 mi) and covers an area of 19 km2 (7.3 sq mi).
The Oberaletsch Glacier is a valley glacier on the south side of the Bernese Alps, in the canton of Valais. It had a length of 9 km (5.6 mi) with an average width of just under 1 km (0.62 mi) and an area of about 22 km2 (8.5 sq mi) in 1973.
The Lower Grindelwald Glacier is a Glacier in the Swiss Bernese Alps, situated to the south-east of Grindelwald. It starts below the Agassizhorn and the Strahlegghörner and is connected with the Finsteraar Glacier via the Finsteraarjoch.
The Arolla Glacier is a 4 km (2.5 mi) long glacier (2005) situated in the Pennine Alps in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. In 1973 it had an area of 13.17 km2 (5.08 sq mi).
The Trift Bridge is a pedestrian-only suspension bridge in the Swiss Alps. The bridge is a simple suspension bridge design spanning 170 metres (560 ft) at a height of 100 metres (330 ft).
The Miage Glacier is a debris-covered glacier in the upper Aosta Valley, in northwestern Italy.
Overdeepening is a characteristic of basins and valleys eroded by glaciers. An overdeepened valley profile is often eroded to depths which are hundreds of metres below the deepest continuous line along a valley or watercourse. This phenomenon is observed under modern day glaciers, in salt-water fjords and fresh-water lakes remaining after glaciers melt, as well as in tunnel valleys which are partially or totally filled with sediment. When the channel produced by a glacier is filled with debris, the subsurface geomorphic structure is found to be erosionally cut into bedrock and subsequently filled by sediments. These overdeepened cuts into bedrock structures can reach a depth of several hundred metres below the valley floor.
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