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Trypsinization is the process of cell dissociation using trypsin, a proteolytic enzyme which breaks down proteins, to dissociate adherent cells from the vessel in which they are being cultured. When added to a cell culture, trypsin breaks down the proteins that enable the cells to adhere to the vessel. Trypsinization is often used to pass cells to a new vessel. When the trypsinization process is complete the cells will be in suspension and appear rounded.
For experimental purposes, cells are often cultivated in containers that take the form of plastic flasks or plates. In such flasks, cells are provided with growth medium comprising the essential nutrients required for proliferation, and the cells adhere to the container and each other as they grow.
This process of cell culture or tissue culture requires a method to dissociate the cells from the container and each other. Trypsin, an enzyme commonly found in the digestive tract, can be used to "digest" the proteins that facilitate adhesion to the container and between cells.
Once cells have detached from their container it is necessary to deactivate the trypsin, unless the trypsin is synthetic, as cell surface proteins will also be cleaved over time and this will affect cell functioning.Trypsin is inhibited by serum that provides the divalent cations like calcium and magnesium which plays a role in both intra and intercellular signalling process i.e. forming CAMs, so serum is usually added to the container once cells have detached - this can be confirmed by observation under a microscope.
Trypsinization is often done to permit passage of the cells to a new container, observation for experimentation, or reduction of the degree of confluency in the flask by removal of a percentage of the cells.
Proteolysis is the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or amino acids. Uncatalysed, the hydrolysis of peptide bonds is extremely slow, taking hundreds of years. Proteolysis is typically catalysed by cellular enzymes called proteases, but may also occur by intra-molecular digestion.
Trypsin is a serine protease from the PA clan superfamily, found in the digestive system of many vertebrates, where it hydrolyzes proteins. Trypsin is formed in the small intestine when its proenzyme form, the trypsinogen produced by the pancreas, is activated. Trypsin cuts peptide chains mainly at the carboxyl side of the amino acids lysine or arginine. It is used for numerous biotechnological processes. The process is commonly referred to as trypsin proteolysis or trypsinization, and proteins that have been digested/treated with trypsin are said to have been trypsinized. Trypsin was discovered in 1876 by Wilhelm Kühne and was named from the Ancient Greek word for rubbing since it was first isolated by rubbing the pancreas with glycerin.
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma. In certain organisms, these smaller substances are absorbed through the small intestine into the blood stream. Digestion is a form of catabolism that is often divided into two processes based on how food is broken down: mechanical and chemical digestion. The term mechanical digestion refers to the physical breakdown of large pieces of food into smaller pieces which can subsequently be accessed by digestive enzymes. Mechanical digestion takes place in mouth through mastication and in small intestine through segmentation contractions. In chemical digestion, enzymes break down food into the small molecules the body can use.
Alpha-1 antitrypsin or α1-antitrypsin is a protein belonging to the serpin superfamily. It is encoded in humans by the SERPINA1 gene. A protease inhibitor, it is also known as alpha1–proteinase inhibitor (A1PI) or alpha1-antiproteinase (A1AP) because it inhibits various proteases. In older biomedical literature it was sometimes called serum trypsin inhibitor, because its capability as a trypsin inhibitor was a salient feature of its early study. As a type of enzyme inhibitor, it protects tissues from enzymes of inflammatory cells, especially neutrophil elastase, and has a reference range in blood of 0.9–2.3 g/L, but the concentration can rise manyfold upon acute inflammation.
Blood proteins, also termed plasma proteins, are proteins present in blood plasma. They serve many different functions, including transport of lipids, hormones, vitamins and minerals in activity and functioning of the immune system. Other blood proteins act as enzymes, complement components, protease inhibitors or kinin precursors. Contrary to popular belief, haemoglobin is not a blood protein, as it is carried within red blood cells, rather than in the blood serum.
Cell culture is the process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions, generally outside their natural environment. After the cells of interest have been isolated from living tissue, they can subsequently be maintained under carefully controlled conditions. These conditions vary for each cell type, but generally consist of a suitable vessel with a substrate or medium that supplies the essential nutrients (amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals), growth factors, hormones, and gases (CO2, O2), and regulates the physio-chemical environment (pH buffer, osmotic pressure, temperature). Most cells require a surface or an artificial substrate to form an adherent culture as a monolayer (one single-cell thick), whereas others can be grown free floating in a medium as a suspension culture. The lifespan of most cells is genetically determined, but some cell culturing cells have been “transformed” into immortal cells which will reproduce indefinitely if the optimal conditions are provided.
Tryptase is the most abundant secretory granule-derived serine proteinase contained in mast cells and has been used as a marker for mast cell activation. Club cells contain tryptase, which is believed to be responsible for cleaving the hemagglutinin surface protein of influenza A virus, thereby activating it and causing the symptoms of flu.
In biology, a subculture is either a new cell culture or a microbiological culture made by transferring some or all cells from a previous culture to fresh growth medium. This action is called subculturing or passaging the cells. Subculture is used to prolong the life and/or expand the number of cells or microorganisms in the culture.
Bovine serum albumin is a serum albumin protein derived from cows. It is often used as a protein concentration standard in lab experiments.
An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity. By binding to enzymes' active sites, inhibitors reduce the compatibility of substrate and enzyme and this leads to the inhibition of Enzyme-Substrate complexes' formation, preventing the catalysis of reactions and decreasing the amount of product produced by a reaction. It can be said that as the concentration of enzyme inhibitors increases, the rate of enzyme activity decreases, and thus, the amount of product produced is inversely proportional to the concentration of inhibitor molecules. Since blocking an enzyme's activity can kill a pathogen or correct a metabolic imbalance, many drugs are enzyme inhibitors. They are also used in pesticides. Not all molecules that bind to enzymes are inhibitors; enzyme activators bind to enzymes and increase their enzymatic activity, while enzyme substrates bind and are converted to products in the normal catalytic cycle of the enzyme.
Protein metabolism denotes the various biochemical processes responsible for the synthesis of proteins and amino acids (anabolism), and the breakdown of proteins by catabolism.
This glossary of chemistry terms is a list of terms and definitions relevant to chemistry, including chemical laws, diagrams and formulae, laboratory tools, glassware, and equipment. Chemistry is a physical science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter, as well as the changes it undergoes during chemical reactions; it features an extensive vocabulary and a significant amount of jargon.
Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3, also known as IGFBP-3, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGFBP3 gene. IGFBP-3 is one of six IGF binding proteins that have highly conserved structures and bind the insulin-like growth factors IGF-1 and IGF-2 with high affinity. IGFBP-7, sometimes included in this family, shares neither the conserved structural features nor the high IGF affinity. Instead, IGFBP-7 binds IGF1R, which blocks IGF-1 and IGF-2 binding, resulting in apoptosis.
Four and a half LIM domains protein 2 also known as FHL-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FHL2 gene. LIM proteins contain a highly conserved double zinc finger motif called the LIM domain.
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH or LD) is an enzyme found in nearly all living cells. LDH catalyzes the conversion of lactate to pyruvate and back, as it converts NAD+ to NADH and back. A dehydrogenase is an enzyme that transfers a hydride from one molecule to another.
Amine oxidase, copper containing 3 (AOC3), also known as vascular adhesion protein (VAP-1) and HPAO is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AOC3 gene on chromosome 17. This protein is a member of the semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase family of enzymes and is associated with many vascular diseases.
The human ADI1 gene encodes the enzyme 1,2-dihydroxy-3-keto-5-methylthiopentene dioxygenase.
Cell surface receptors are receptors that are embedded in the plasma membrane of cells. They act in cell signaling by receiving extracellular molecules. They are specialized integral membrane proteins that allow communication between the cell and the extracellular space. The extracellular molecules may be hormones, neurotransmitters, cytokines, growth factors, cell adhesion molecules, or nutrients; they react with the receptor to induce changes in the metabolism and activity of a cell. In the process of signal transduction, ligand binding affects a cascading chemical change through the cell membrane.
Protease, serine, 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PRSS2 gene.
A cell suspension or suspension culture is a type of cell culture in which single cells or small aggregates of cells are allowed to function and multiply in an agitated growth medium, thus forming a suspension. Suspension culture is one of the two classical types of cell culture, the other being adherent culture. The history of suspension cell culture closely aligns with the history of cell culture overall, but differs in maintenance methods and commercial applications. The cells themselves can either be derived from homogenized tissue or from another type of culture. Suspension cell culture is commonly used to culture nonadhesive cell lines, plant cells, and insect cells. While some cell lines are cultured in suspension, the majority of commercially available mammalian cell lines are adherent. Suspension cell cultures need to be agitated and may require specialized equipment or flasks. These cultures, like all cell cultures, need to be maintained with nutrient containing media and cultured in a specific cell density range to avoid cell death.