|Udayar or Parkavakulam|
|Populated states||Tamil Nadu|
|Related groups||Tamil people|
The Udayar caste or Parkavakulam is found in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.
Udayar are mostly cultivators, landlords also known as palayakkarars and head of Kavalgars. The main sub-divisions of the community are Malaimannar, Moopanar, Nainar, Nathamannar and Shruthimannar.
The royal family of Vettavalam Vanadhirayars belongs to Parkkavakulam community, their origin traced from Tirukkoilur Malayaman Tirumudi kari, their relationship with nearby palayakkarars named as Kongarayapalayam Kongarayar, Mangaloor Soora Pandarathar, Kattumayilur Vengai Pandarathar, Kurumbur Veera samburaya Nayinar, They all are belongs to Parkkavakulam community.
The community forms a sizeable population in the areas of Pudukottai,Thuraiyur,Perambalur,Karur, Trichy, Ariyalur, Salem, Theni, Attur, Rasipuram, Namakkal, Tanjavur, Pattukkottai, Mannargudi, Kumbakonam, Thiruvannamalai, Ramanathapuram, Chennai, Sivagangai, Villupuram,Madurai, Mayiladuthurai, Cuddalore, Puducherry and Bangalore.
Nainaar are mostly Jains residing in North and Central Tamil Nadu. Malaimannar, Moopanar, Nathamannar and Shruthimannar follow either Shaivism(majors) or Vaishnavism. Some Udayars are Roman Catholic Christians.
Iyer is a caste of Hindu Brahmin communities of Tamil origin. Most Iyers are followers of the Advaita philosophy propounded by Adi Shankara and adhere to Smarta tradition. This is in contrast to the Iyengar caste, who are Vaishnavite Hindus. The majority of Iyers reside in Tamil Nadu, India.
Christianity is India's third-largest religion after Hinduism and Islam, with approximately 27.8 million followers, constituting 2.3 percent of India's population. According to the tradition of Saint Thomas Syrian Christians of Kerala, Christianity was introduced to India by Thomas the Apostle, who is said to have reached the Malabar Coast of Kerala in 52 AD. There is a general scholarly consensus that Christian communities were firmly established in the Malabar Coast of Kerala by the 6th century AD, which were Syrian Christians of Kerala. Starting from European colonisations from 15th century several Western Christian communities like Latin Catholics and Protestants were created in different parts of the country. The Goa Inquisition was established in Portuguese India to enforce Catholic orthodoxy in the Indian colonies of the Portuguese Empire, and to counter the New Christians, who were accused of "crypto-Hinduism", and the Old Christian Nasranis, accused of "Judaising". It was established in 1560, briefly suppressed from 1774 to 1778, continued thereafter until finally abolished in 1812.
Gounder is a title used by various communities in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It may refer to communities such as the Kongu Vellalar, Kurumba, Vokkaliga, Vanniyars, Vettuvars and Uralis.
Ayyanar, Sastha is a shaiva and samana deity particularly praised in South India and Sri Lanka. His worship is prevalent among Malayalis, Tamils, and Kannadigas. Some studies suggest that Ayyanar may have also been worshipped in South east Asian countries in the past. He is primarily worshiped as one of the guardian folk deities of Tamil Nadu. The village temples of Ayyanar are usually flanked by gigantic and colorful statues of him and his companions riding horses or elephants.
The Pallar, who prefer to be called Mallar, are an agricultural community from the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The Pallars traditionally inhabited the fertile wetland area referred to as Marutham in the literary devices of the Sangam landscape. Today, they are the dominant Dalit community of southern Tamil Nadu and have developed a reputation for being assertive about their rights. Due to the demand of the pallar community to classify them under a more dignified generic name Devendrakula Velalar, recently they together with six other related castes have been given the name Devendrakula Velalar; however their original caste name remains valid and they are still part of the Scheduled Caste list.
Vaitheeswaran Kovil is a Hindu temple dedicated to the Shiva, located in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Shiva is worshipped as Vaidyanathar or Vaitheeswaran meaning the "God of healing" and it is believed that prayers to Vaitheeswaran can cure diseases. Vaitheeswaran is a Tamil derivative from vaidya (Doctor) and Ishvara (God/Master). The presiding deity is Sri vaidyanathan, facing towards West whereas East side is the common one. He is the God of Healing. When pronouncing in Tamil, it sounds like "vaideeswaran". It is one of the nine Navagraha temples and is associated with the planet Mars (Angaraka).
John de Britto, also known as Arul Anandar, was a Portuguese Jesuit missionary and martyr, often called 'the Portuguese St Francis Xavier' by Indian Catholics. He can be called the John the Baptist of India.
Orur is a small village located in Tiruvadanai taluk, Ramanathapuram district, Tamil Nadu, India. It is situated 35 km from Devakottai, Sivagangai. As of the 2011 Census of India, the village had a population of 5,065 across 1,171 households. There were 2,470 males and 2,595 females.
The Basilica of Our Lady of Good Health, also known as Sanctuary of Our Lady of Vailankanni, is a Marian shrine located at the small town of Velankanni in Tamil Nadu, South India. The Roman Catholic Latin Rite Basilica is dedicated to Our Lady of Good Health. Devotion to Our Lady of Good Health of Velankanni can be traced back to the mid-16th century, and is attributed to three separate miracles at the sites surrounding the Basilica: The apparition of Blessed Mary and the Christ Child to a slumbering shepherd boy, the healing of a handicapped buttermilk vendor, and the rescue of Portuguese sailors from a deadly sea storm. These accounts are oral lore with no written record or attested sources to support them.
Uvari is a coastal village in Thisayanvilai Taluk, Tirunelveli district, Tamil Nadu, India. It is also called Karaichuthu Uvari. The total geographical area of the Uvari is around 3 km2 (1.2 sq mi). Uvari is surrounded by Idaiyangudi, Navaladi, Kuttom and the Bay of Bengal. The mean maximum temperature is around 37 °C (99 °F) in summer and 17 °C (63 °F) in winter, with humidity levels over 65 percent. The rainy season starts between October and January. Uvari is rich in mineral resources like limestone, Ilmenite, and red garnet sands.
Vellarada is a border village situated in Thiruvananthapuram district in the state of Kerala, India. It is 42 km from Thiruvananthapuram. It is the southernmost part of Kerala state, sharing its border with Tamil Nadu. Vellarada is said to be the threshold to the high-range areas of the eastern part of Thiruvananthapuram district. The southernmost point of Western Ghats in Kerala is near Vellarada.
Christianity is a minority religion in Delhi, the National Capital Territory of India. A diocese of Delhi of the Church of North India exists as well as a Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Delhi and the Central Baptist Church. St. Mary's Orthodox Cathedral Hauz Khas belongs to the Indian (Malankara) Orthodox Church. Indian Pentecostal Church of God Northern Region head office situated in Bhai Vir Singh Marg, New Delhi.
Christianity in the state of Tamil Nadu, India is the second largest religion in the state. According to tradition, St. Thomas, one of the twelve apostles, landed in Malabar Coast in 52 CE. In the colonial age many Portuguese, Dutch, British and Italian Christians came to Tamil Nadu. Priests accompanied them not only to minister the colonisers but also to spread the Christian faith among the non-Christians in Tamil Nadu. Currently, Christians are a minority community comprising 6% of the total population. Christians are mainly concentrated in the southern districts of Tamil Nadu - Kanyakumari, Thoothukudi and Tirunelveli.
Kataragama temple in Kataragama, Sri Lanka, is a temple complex dedicated to Buddhist guardian deity Kataragama deviyo and Hindu War God Murugan. It is one of the few religious sites in Sri Lanka that is venerated by the Buddhists, Hindus, Muslims and the Vedda people. For most of the past millennia, it was a jungle shrine very difficult to access; today it is accessible by an all-weather road. The shrines and the nearby Kiri Vehera are managed by Buddhists, the shrines dedicated to Teyvāṉai and Shiva are managed by Hindus and the mosque by Muslims.
Pana Sankranti, also known as Maha Bishuba Sankranti, is the traditional new year day festival of Odia people in Odisha, India. The festival occurs in the solar Odia calendar on the first day of the traditional solar month of Meṣa, hence equivalent lunar month Baisakha. This falls on the Purnimanta system of the Indian Hindu calendar. It therefore falls on 13/14 April every year on the Gregorian calendar.
St. Mary's Higher Secondary School is a private Catholic primary and secondary school for boys located in Dindigul, Tamil Nadu, India. The school was founded by the Jesuits in 1850.
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Tirunallar Saniswaran Temple or Dharbaranyeswarar Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to the deity Shiva, located in Thirukoodalaiyathoor, a village in Cuddalore district in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu. located in Tirunallar in Karaikal district of Pondicherry, India. Shiva is worshipped as Dharbaranyeswarar, and is represented by the lingam. His consort Parvati is depicted as Praneswari Amman. The presiding deity is revered in the 7th century Tamil Saiva canonical work, the Tevaram, written by Tamil saint poets known as the Nayanars and classified as Paadal Petra Sthalam. The temple is counted as one of the nine temples in the Navagraha, the nine planetary deities. It is famous for shani, the planet Saturn.
Nagore Dargah is a dargah built over the tomb of the Sufi saint Shahul Hameed. It is located in Nagore, a coastal town in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The outer doors of the dargah are kept open always, while the internal doors are open from 4:30 am to 07:00 am and from 6:25 pm to 9:30 pm. On Fridays, the doors are additionally kept open between 12:00 and 2:30 pm. Shahul Hamid is believed to have performed many miracles in Nagore, and cured the physical affliction of king Achutappa Nayak, a 16th-century Hindu ruler of Thanjavur. He is locally referred to as Nagore Andavar, meaning the "Ruler of Nagore". Nagore dargah as it stands now, is believed to have been built by ardent devotees of Shahul Hamid, with major contribution from Hindus. There are five minarets in the dargah, with the Hindu Maratha ruler of Thanjavur Pratap Singh, building the tallest minaret. The dargah is a major pilgrimage centre that attracts pilgrims from both Islam and Hinduism, symbolizing peaceful coexistence between the two religions.
Shahul Hamid was a mystic saint, Islamic preacher in Tamil Nadu and a 13th generation descendant of the renowned Sufi saint, Muhiyudin Abd al-Qadir al-Jalani. His tomb is located at Nagore, Tamil Nadu, India.