If any two sets in some finite family of sets have a union that also belongs to the family, must some element belong to at least half of the sets in the family?
In combinatorics, the union-closed sets conjecture is an elementary problem, posed by Péter Frankl in 1979 and still open. A family of sets is said to be union-closed if the union of any two sets from the family remains in the family. The conjecture states:
For every finite union-closed family of finite sets, other than the family containing only the empty set, there exists an element that belongs to at least half of the sets in the family.
If F is a union-closed family of sets, the family of complement sets to sets in F is closed under intersection, and an element that belongs to at least half of the sets of F belongs to at most half of the complement sets. Thus, an equivalent form of the conjecture (the form in which it was originally stated) is that, for any intersection-closed family of sets that contains more than one set, there exists an element that belongs to at most half of the sets in the family.
Although stated above in terms of families of sets, Frankl's conjecture has also been formulated and studied as a question in lattice theory. A lattice is a partially ordered set in which for two elements x and y there is a unique greatest element less than or equal to both of them (the meet of x and y) and a unique least element greater than or equal to both of them (the join of x and y). The family of all subsets of a set S, ordered by set inclusion, forms a lattice in which the meet is represented by the set-theoretic intersection and the join is represented by the set-theoretic union; a lattice formed in this way is called a Boolean lattice. The lattice-theoretic version of Frankl's conjecture is that in any finite lattice there exists an element x that is not the join of any two smaller elements, and such that the number of elements greater than or equal to x totals at most half the lattice, with equality only if the lattice is a Boolean lattice. As Abe (2000) shows, this statement about lattices is equivalent to the Frankl conjecture for union-closed sets: each lattice can be translated into a union-closed set family, and each union-closed set family can be translated into a lattice, such that the truth of the Frankl conjecture for the translated object implies the truth of the conjecture for the original object. This lattice-theoretic version of the conjecture is known to be true for several natural subclasses of latticesbut remains open in the general case.
Another equivalent formulation of the union-closed sets conjecture uses graph theory. In an undirected graph, an independent set is a set of vertices no two of which are adjacent to each other; an independent set is maximal if it is not a subset of a larger independent set. In any graph, the "heavy" vertices that appear in more than half of the maximal independent sets must themselves form an independent set, so there always exists at least one non-heavy vertex, a vertex that appears in at most half of the maximal independent sets. The graph formulation of the union-closed sets conjecture states that every finite non-empty graph contains two adjacent non-heavy vertices. It is automatically true when the graph contains an odd cycle, because the independent set of all heavy vertices cannot cover all the edges of the cycle. Therefore, the more interesting case of the conjecture is for bipartite graphs, which have no odd cycles. Another equivalent formulation of the conjecture is that, in every bipartite graph, there exist two vertices, one on each side of the bipartition, such that each of these two vertices belongs to at most half of the graph's maximal independent sets. This conjecture is known to hold for chordal bipartite graphs, bipartite series–parallel graphs, and bipartite graphs of maximum degree three.
The conjecture has been proven for many special cases of union-closed set families. In particular, it is known to be true for
Péter Frankl stated the conjecture, in terms of intersection-closed set families, in 1979, and so the conjecture is usually credited to him and sometimes called the Frankl conjecture. The earliest publication of the union-closed version of the conjecture appears to be by Duffus (1985).
In graph theory, a cycle in a graph is a non-empty trail in which the only repeated vertices are the first and last vertices. A directed cycle in a directed graph is a non-empty directed trail in which the only repeated vertices are the first and last vertices.
In mathematics, Hall's marriage theorem, proved by Philip Hall (1935), is a theorem with two equivalent formulations:
In combinatorics, a branch of mathematics, a matroid is a structure that abstracts and generalizes the notion of linear independence in vector spaces. There are many equivalent ways to define a matroid axiomatically, the most significant being in terms of: independent sets; bases or circuits; rank functions; closure operators; and closed sets or flats. In the language of partially ordered sets, a finite matroid is equivalent to a geometric lattice.
Informally, the reconstruction conjecture in graph theory says that graphs are determined uniquely by their subgraphs. It is due to Kelly and Ulam.
This is a glossary of graph theory. Graph theory is the study of graphs, systems of nodes or vertices connected in pairs by lines or edges.
In graph theory, the Robertson–Seymour theorem states that the undirected graphs, partially ordered by the graph minor relationship, form a well-quasi-ordering. Equivalently, every family of graphs that is closed under minors can be defined by a finite set of forbidden minors, in the same way that Wagner's theorem characterizes the planar graphs as being the graphs that do not have the complete graph K5 or the complete bipartite graph K3,3 as minors.
In graph theory, an undirected graph H is called a minor of the graph G if H can be formed from G by deleting edges and vertices and by contracting edges.
In mathematics, an antimatroid is a formal system that describes processes in which a set is built up by including elements one at a time, and in which an element, once available for inclusion, remains available until it is included. Antimatroids are commonly axiomatized in two equivalent ways, either as a set system modeling the possible states of such a process, or as a formal language modeling the different sequences in which elements may be included. Dilworth (1940) was the first to study antimatroids, using yet another axiomatization based on lattice theory, and they have been frequently rediscovered in other contexts; see Korte, Lovász & Schrader (1991) for a comprehensive survey of antimatroid theory with many additional references.
In the mathematical field of graph theory, a graph homomorphism is a mapping between two graphs that respects their structure. More concretely, it is a function between the vertex sets of two graphs that maps adjacent vertices to adjacent vertices.
In mathematics, in the areas of order theory and combinatorics, Dilworth's theorem characterizes the width of any finite partially ordered set in terms of a partition of the order into a minimum number of chains. It is named for the mathematician Robert P. Dilworth (1950).
In the mathematical discipline of graph theory, Menger's theorem says that in a finite graph, the size of a minimum cut set is equal to the maximum number of disjoint paths that can be found between any pair of vertices. Proved by Karl Menger in 1927, it characterizes the connectivity of a graph. It is generalized by the max-flow min-cut theorem, which is a weighted, edge version, and which in turn is a special case of the strong duality theorem for linear programs.
A convex polytope is a special case of a polytope, having the additional property that it is also a convex set contained in the -dimensional Euclidean space . Most texts use the term "polytope" for a bounded convex polytope, and the word "polyhedron" for the more general, possibly unbounded object. Others allow polytopes to be unbounded. The terms "bounded/unbounded convex polytope" will be used below whenever the boundedness is critical to the discussed issue. Yet other texts identify a convex polytope with its boundary.
Péter Frankl is a mathematician, street performer, columnist and educator, active in Japan. Frankl studied Mathematics at Eötvös Loránd University in Budapest and submitted his PhD thesis while still an undergraduate. He holds PhD degree from University Paris Diderot as well. He has lived in Japan since 1988, where he is a well-known personality and often appears in the media. He keeps travelling around Japan performing. Frankl won a gold medal at the International Mathematical Olympiad in 1971. He has seven joint papers with Paul Erdős, and eleven joint papers with Ronald Graham. His research is in combinatorics, especially in extremal combinatorics. He is the author of the union-closed sets conjecture.
In graph theory, the Dulmage–Mendelsohn decomposition is a partition of the vertices of a bipartite graph into subsets, with the property that two adjacent vertices belong to the same subset if and only if they are paired with each other in a perfect matching of the graph. It is named after A. L. Dulmage and Nathan Mendelsohn, who published it in 1958. A generalization to any graph is the Edmonds–Gallai decomposition, using the Blossom algorithm.
Extremal combinatorics is a field of combinatorics, which is itself a part of mathematics. Extremal combinatorics studies how large or how small a collection of finite objects can be, if it has to satisfy certain restrictions.
The Zarankiewicz problem, an unsolved problem in mathematics, asks for the largest possible number of edges in a bipartite graph that has a given number of vertices and has no complete bipartite subgraphs of a given size. It belongs to the field of extremal graph theory, a branch of combinatorics, and is named after the Polish mathematician Kazimierz Zarankiewicz, who proposed several special cases of the problem in 1951.
In the mathematical discipline of graph theory, a graph C is a covering graph of another graph G if there is a covering map from the vertex set of C to the vertex set of G. A covering map f is a surjection and a local isomorphism: the neighbourhood of a vertex v in C is mapped bijectively onto the neighbourhood of f(v) in G.
In extremal graph theory, the forbidden subgraph problem is the following problem: given a graph , find the maximal number of edges in an -vertex graph which does not have a subgraph isomorphic to . In this context, is called a forbidden subgraph.
In the mathematics of graph drawing, Turán's brick factory problem asks for the minimum number of crossings in a drawing of a complete bipartite graph. The problem is named after Pál Turán, who formulated it while being forced to work in a brick factory during World War II.
Italo Jose Dejter is an Argentine-born American mathematician, a retired professor of mathematics and computer science and a researcher in Algebraic topology, Differential topology, Graph theory, Coding theory and Design theory. He obtained a Licentiate degree in mathematics at University of Buenos Aires in 1967, arrived at Rutgers University in 1970 by means of a Guggenheim Fellowship and obtained there a Ph.D. degree in mathematics in 1975 under the supervision of Professor Ted Petrie, with support of the National Science Foundation. He was a professor at the Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil, from 1977 to 1984, with grants from the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development, (CNPq).