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The V-hull on the Marine Personnel Carrier (highlighted in green) protects well against IEDs, but raises the center of mass, increasing the likelihood of rollovers. MarinePersonnelCarrierDemonstrator4.jpg
The V-hull on the Marine Personnel Carrier (highlighted in green) protects well against IEDs, but raises the center of mass, increasing the likelihood of rollovers.

The V-hull is a type of vehicle armor design used on wheeled armored personnel carriers (APCs), infantry mobility vehicles, infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs) and MRAPs. The design originated in the 1970s with vehicles such as the iconic Casspir used extensively during the South African Border War, Leopard security vehicle [1] used in the Rhodesian Bush War [2] and South African armored vehicle company Land Systems OMCs and Buffels. [3]



Field test of a V-hull vehicle Field test of the mine-resistant vehicle.png
Field test of a V-hull vehicle

The purpose of V-hulls is to increase vehicle and crew survivability by deflecting an upward directed blast from a landmine (or Improvised Explosive Device) away from the vehicle, while also presenting a sloped armor face. [4] [5] By presenting its armor at an angle, it increases the amount of material a ballistic projectile must pass through in order to penetrate the vehicle, and increases the chance of deflection.

V-hulls are incorporated in armored vehicle designs in several different ways. Many vehicles, such as the BAE Systems RG-33 incorporate the V-hull into a monocoque chassis, while others, such as the ATF Dingo and International MaxxPro use a body-on-frame chassis, with an armored V-hull crew compartment, and an additional V or semicircular shaped piece protecting the driveline. [6] Others, such as the Cougar H have a V-hull crew compartment, and allow the driveline and suspension components to be sacrificed in an attack, while maintaining the safety of the crew.

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Casspir</span> Mine-Resistant Ambush Protected Vehicle

The Casspir is a Mine-Resistant Ambush Protected Vehicle that has been in use in South Africa since the 1980s. It is a four-wheeled, four-wheel drive vehicle, used for transport of troops. It can hold a crew of two, plus 12 additional soldiers and associated equipment. The Casspir was unique in design when launched, providing for passive mine defence. The main armoured steel body of the vehicle is raised high above the ground, so when a mine is detonated, the explosion is less likely to damage the crew compartment and kill the occupants. The cross-section of the hull is V-shaped (V-hull), directing the force of the explosion outwards, further protecting the occupants. The vehicle also offers crew protection from small arms fire. The capabilities of the Casspir were the basis of the outline capabilities required by the U.S. Marines' for their Mine Resistant Ambush Protected or MRAP vehicle project.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mamba APC</span> South African mine protected personnel carrier

The Mamba is a South African armoured personnel carrier designed for internal security purposes. It was developed during the late 1980s to replace the Buffel in service with the South African military and security forces. The first models were built on a 4X2 Toyota Dyna chassis, which was subsequently replaced in production around 1994 by a more reliable Unimog chassis. All marks of the Mamba were designed to be mine-resistant and blastproof.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">RG-31 Nyala</span> Infantry mobility vehicle

The RG-31 Nyala is a 4×4 multi-purpose mine-resistant ambush protected infantry mobility vehicle manufactured in South Africa by Land Systems OMC and in Turkey by FNSS Defence Systems. It is based on the Mamba APC of TFM Industries.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Buffel</span> Infantry mobility vehicle

The Buffel is an infantry mobility vehicle used by the South African Defence Force during the South African Border War. The Buffel was also used as an armoured fighting vehicle and proved itself in this role. It replaced the older Bedford RL-based Hippo APC and itself was replaced by the Mamba from 1995 in South Africa, but remains in use elsewhere, notably Sri Lanka.

Land Systems OMC is a South African company that produces a range of armoured vehicles which have been successfully exported and are in service with, amongst others, the U.S., Canadian and South African militaries. It is a division of Denel SOC LTD, located in Benoni, Gauteng.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Buffalo (mine protected vehicle)</span> Light tactical military vehicle

The Buffalo is a wheeled mine resistant ambush protected (MRAP) armored military vehicle built by Force Protection, Inc., a division of General Dynamics. It is the largest vehicle in Force Protection's line-up, followed by the Cougar MRAP and the Ocelot light protected patrol vehicle (LPPV).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cougar (MRAP)</span> Mine-resistant infantry mobility vehicle, 2002

The Cougar is a mine-resistant ambush-protected (MRAP) and infantry mobility vehicle structured to be resistant to landmines and improvised munitions.

Force Protection, Inc. was a manufacturer of ballistic- and blast-protected vehicles from the United States which have been used in Iraq, Afghanistan, Kosovo and other hot spots around the world. The company was acquired by General Dynamics in 2011.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">RG-33</span> Infantry Mobility Vehicle

The RG-33 is a mine-resistant light armored vehicle initially designed by BAE Systems Land Systems South Africa, a South African subsidiary of BAE Systems. BAE Systems in the US extensively modified it with additional protection, new powertrain, and suspension systems. It was built in a number of locations including York, Pennsylvania. It was one of several vehicles being fielded by the US Armed Forces in Iraq under the MRAP program.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Infantry mobility vehicle</span> Wheeled armored personnel carrier

An infantry mobility vehicle (IMV) is a wheeled armored personnel carrier (APC) serving as a military patrol, reconnaissance or security vehicle. Examples include the ATF Dingo, Iveco LMV, Oshkosh M-ATV, AMZ Dzik, AMZ Tur, Mungo ESK, and Bushmaster IMV. This term also applies to those vehicles fielded as part of the MRAP program.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Reva APC</span> Armoured personnel carrier

The REVA Armoured Personnel Carrier (APC) is a mine-protected vehicle. It is produced by Integrated Convoy Protection. The vehicle’s V-shaped hull offers protection against land mines and Improvised Explosive Devices (IED)s. The vehicle has space for at least 10 passengers. Ten firing ports are also available. Two light machine guns can be used and cover a 360-degree on roller bearing turret hatches.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">MRAP</span> Armoured vehicle designed to survive IED explosion

Mine-Resistant Ambush Protected is a term for United States military light tactical vehicles produced as part of the MRAP program that are designed specifically to withstand improvised explosive device (IED) attacks and ambushes. The United States Department of Defense MRAP program began in 2007 as a response to the increased threat of IEDs during the Iraq War. From 2007 until 2012, the MRAP program deployed more than 12,000 vehicles in the Iraq War and War in Afghanistan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">GFF4</span> Armored personnel carrier

The GFF4, previously KMW Grizzly, is a medium weight MRAP armored personnel carrier, developed by Krauss-Maffei Wegmann (KMW), designed for operation with the German Army based on the 6x6 Trakker chassis from Iveco adapted to meet the needs of the German Army. It is being developed under the direction of the German Ministry of Defence Federal Office of Defense Technology and Procurement. The first vehicle will be delivered as early as November 2007.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Unicorn APC</span> Armoured personnel carrier

The Unicorn is a MRAP used by the Sri Lankan military based on the Buffel, which is made by the Sri Lanka Electrical and Mechanical Engineers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Leopard security vehicle</span> MPAV ("Mine Protected Armoured Vehicle")

The Leopard Security Vehicle is an unusual land-mine protected APC used by the Rhodesian Government and civilian population during the 1964-1979 Rhodesian Bush War. It offered basic but necessary protection against mine attack through the use of a V-hull.

The Mahindra Mine Protected Vehicle-I (MPV-I), is an Indian MRAP-type armored personnel carrier manufactured by Defense Land Systems, a joint-venture of Mahindra & Mahindra Limited and BAE Systems, the first vehicle made under the venture. It is an improved Casspir variant built under licence.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Iraqi Light Armored Vehicle</span> Weapon

Iraqi Light Armored Vehicle or International Light Armored Vehicle is an armored fighting vehicle based on the Cougar and manufactured by Force Protection Industries, BAE Systems and General Dynamics.

Burraq is a Mine-Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) Vehicle currently being developed by Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT) of Pakistan. It is a 4x4 Protected vehicle based on the chassis of the Isuzu NPS-75 commercial truck so as to reduce the cost and facilitate the delivery of spare parts. In appearance, the Burraq is quite similar to the Wildcat MRAP, developed by the Israel Military Industries (IMI).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hippo APC</span> South African armoured personnel carrier

The Hippo is a South African armoured personnel carrier. Specially designed to be mine resistant, it can carry ten infantrymen and a crew of two. The vehicle's remote-operated turret mounts dual 7.62mm machine guns, but like other improvised fighting vehicles, it is only lightly protected against ballistic threats.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">SBA-60K2 Bulat</span> Armored personnel carrier

The SBA-60K2 Bulat armored personnel carrier (APC) was developed jointly by Kamaz and Zaschita corporation as a private venture. Development of this vehicle commenced in 2010 and was completed by 2013. It is a further development of the earlier BPM-97 6x6 wheeled mine-resistant, ambush protected (MRAP) vehicle. Russia currently employs 15 Bulat vehicles received in late 2014, and ordered a new batch of further 50 vehicles from the Russian manufacturer Zashcita.


  1. "Leopard - Land Mine Resisting Vehicle" . Retrieved 2008-07-18.
  2. "The Echos of an African War Archive". Archived from the original on 2008-09-18. Retrieved 2008-07-18.
  3. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-08-12. Retrieved 2007-07-01.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. "Force Protection, Inc. - In the News". Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-07-01.
  5. Wood, David (2007-02-15). "Marines to trade in vulnerable Humvees". The Seattle Times.
  6. "Defense Review - DefRev First Look: BAE Systems RG33 Series MRAP Vehicles". Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-07-01.