Vyoshenskaya Uprising

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Vyoshenskaya Uprising
Part of the Southern Front of the Russian Civil War
DateMarch 11 - June 8, 1919
Location
Result Victory of the insurgents and their entry into the White armies.
Belligerents
Flag of Don Cossacks.svg Upper Don Cossacks
Flag of Don Cossacks.svg Don Army
Flag RSFSR 1918.svg Southern Front
Flag RSFSR 1918.svg 8th Army (RSFSR)
Flag RSFSR 1918.svg 9th Army (RSFSR)
Commanders and leaders
Flag of Don Cossacks.svg Pavel Kudinov
Flag of Don Cossacks.svg Vladimir Sidorin
Flag RSFSR 1918.svg Pavel Knyagnitsky
Flag RSFSR 1918.svg Tichon Hvesin
Strength
unknown 14,000
Casualties and losses
unknown unknown

The Vyoshenskaya Uprising (or Upper Don rebellion) (March 11 - June 8, 1919) was an uprising of the Don Cossacks during the Russian Civil War led by Pavel Kudinov against the Bolsheviks, which had occupied the Upper Don district in January–March 1919. The uprising was centered around the village of Vyoshenskaya.

Don Cossacks ethnic group

Don Cossacks are Cossacks who settled along the middle and lower Don. Historically, they have been located within what was the Don Cossack Host, which was either an independent or an autonomous democratic republic in the present-day Southern Russia and the Donbass region of Ukraine, from the end of the 16th century until 1918. As of 1992, by the presidential decree of the Russian Federation, Cossacks can be enrolled on a special register. A number of Cossack communities have been reconstituted to further the Cossack cultural traditions, including those of the Don Cossack Host.

Russian Civil War multi-party war in the former Russian Empire, November 1917-October 1922

The Russian Civil War was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the two Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future. The two largest combatant groups were the Red Army, fighting for the Bolshevik form of socialism led by Vladimir Lenin, and the loosely allied forces known as the White Army, which included diverse interests favoring political monarchism, economic capitalism and alternative forms of socialism, each with democratic and antidemocratic variants. In addition, rival militant socialists and nonideological Green armies fought against both the Bolsheviks and the Whites. Eight foreign nations intervened against the Red Army, notably the former Allied military forces from the World War and the pro-German armies. The Red Army eventually defeated the White Armed Forces of South Russia in Ukraine and the army led by Admiral Aleksandr Kolchak to the east in Siberia in 1919. The remains of the White forces commanded by Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel were beaten in Crimea and evacuated in late 1920. Lesser battles of the war continued on the periphery for two more years, and minor skirmishes with the remnants of the White forces in the Far East continued well into 1923. The war ended in 1923 in the sense that Bolshevik communist control of the newly formed Soviet Union was now assured, although armed national resistance in Central Asia was not completely crushed until 1934. There were an estimated 7,000,000–12,000,000 casualties during the war, mostly civilians. The Russian Civil War has been described by some as the greatest national catastrophe that Europe had yet seen.

Vyoshenskaya, colloquially known as Vyoshki (Russian: Вёшки, is a rural locality and the administrative center of Sholokhovsky District of Rostov Oblast, Russia, located in the northern reaches of the Don River on its left bank. Population: 9,261  ; 9,317  ; 9,578  .

The uprising

At the end of 1918 and beginning of 1919 the Tsaritsyn Front of the Don Army suffered a serious defeat against the Bolsheviks in the Voronezh–Povorino Operation. The Don Army retreated south, but many Upper-Don Cossacks went home, hoping for some peace settlement with the Red Army. But the Red Army ordered the Cossacks to surrender all weapons within 24 hours under the threat of execution. They also decided to confiscate the property from the "rich and bourgeois" and any money except Soviet money was banned.

Don Army

The Don Army was the military of the short lived Don Republic and a part of the White movement in the Russian Civil War. It operated from 1918 to 1920, in the Don region and centered in the town of Novocherkassk.

The Voronezh–Povorino Operation, was a battle in January 1919 between the White and Red Armies during the Russian Civil War around the city of Voronezh and the railway station of Povorino. The Red Army defeated the Don Army under Pyotr Krasnov.

The district was flooded with Red units passing south to the front, leading to requisitioning of bread, horses and ordinary robbery. The Red tribunals began to draw up execution lists. By the beginning of the uprising, up to 300 Cossacks had been shot, and rumors of executions lists of hundreds of Cossacks from every village, completely upset the Upper Don Cossacks.

This led to a spontaneous uprising in the whole district, of which Pavel Kudinov became the leader.
To suppress the uprising, the Red Army was forced to divert 14,000 soldiers from the 8th and 9th armies of the Southern Front.
Despite the massive repression, the Don Cossacks managed, with the support of parts of the Don Army, to contain the onslaught of the expeditionary forces.

The 8th Army was a field army of the Red Army during the Russian Civil War which existed from 26 September 1918 until 20 March 1920.

The 9th Army was a field army of the Red Army during the Russian Civil War which existed from October 3, 1918 until June 22, 1921.

Southern Front (RSFSR)

The Southern Front was a front of the Red Army during the Russian Civil War, formed twice.

Thus the insurrection was militarily an important factor in divirting an important part of the Red Army forces away from the front, which contributed to the successful offensive of the Don and Volunteer Army.

Between May 28-June 2, the Don Army command took to the offensive along the entire front. Having seized the initiative, the units of the Don Army occupied Millerovo in May, Lugansk on June 1 and, interacting with units of the Volunteer Army, drove the 8th Red Army to the north in the direction of Voronezh, and the 9th Red Army to the northeast in the direction of Balashov.

Millerovo, Millerovsky District, Rostov Oblast Town in Rostov Oblast, Russia

Millerovo is a town and the administrative center of Millerovsky District in Rostov Oblast, Russia. Population: 36,499 (2010 Census); 38,498 (2002 Census); 37,346 (1989 Census).

The Upper Don was again under control of the White Army.

Sources

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