Watford War Memorial is a war memorial now located outside the town hall in Watford, Hertfordshire, England. Also known as Watford Peace Memorial, it comprises three bronze sculptures of nude males on a white Portland stone base. The sculptor was Mary Pownall Bromet, a student of Auguste Rodin: it is her only war memorial, and a rare example of a war memorial by a woman. It is also an unusual example of a war memorial that incorporates nude sculptures.
A war memorial is a building, monument, statue or other edifice to celebrate a war or victory, or to commemorate those who died or were injured in a war.
Watford is a town and borough in Hertfordshire, England, 15 miles (24 km) northwest of central London.
Portland stone is a limestone from the Tithonian stage of the Jurassic period quarried on the Isle of Portland, Dorset. The quarries consist of beds of white-grey limestone separated by chert beds. It has been used extensively as a building stone throughout the British Isles, notably in major public buildings in London such as St Paul's Cathedral and Buckingham Palace. Portland stone is also exported to many countries—being used for example in the United Nations headquarters building in New York City.
The memorial was originally constructed outside the Peace Memorial Hospital in Watford, now the Peace Hospice, which was initially funded by public subscription to commemorate the dead of the First World War. The bronze sculptures are based on plaster figures which Bromet had donated to the hospital. The three figures represent, left: "To The Fallen", a seated man grieving; centre, "Victory", a man standing with right arm raised; and right, "To The Wounded", a seated man. The bronzes were cast at the Morris Singer foundry, and the memorial was unveiled by George Villiers, 6th Earl of Clarendon on 1 July 1928.
Morris Singer is a British art foundry, recognised as the oldest fine art foundry in the world.. Its predecessor, Singer was established in 1848 in Frome, Somerset, by John Webb Singer, as the Frome Art Metal Works.
George Herbert Hyde Villiers, 6th Earl of Clarendon, KG GCMG GCVO PC DL, styled Lord Hyde from 1877 to 1914, was a British Conservative politician from the Villiers family. He served as Governor-General of the Union of South Africa from 1931 to 1937.
When the hospital closed, the memorial was moved in 1971 to a location on The Parade outside Watford Town Hall. It was restored in 2013 to remove copper staining and algae. The streaked weathered patina of the bronzes was retained, as the artist had intended them to age. It was granted a Grade II listing in 1983, and upgraded to Grade II* in 2017.
A listed building, or listed structure, is one that has been placed on one of the four statutory lists maintained by Historic England in England, Historic Environment Scotland in Scotland, Cadw in Wales, and the Northern Ireland Environment Agency in Northern Ireland.
There are over 20,000 Grade II* listed buildings in England. This page is a list of these buildings in the district of Watford in Hertfordshire.
There are 129 Grade II* listed war memorials in England, out of over 2,000 listed war memorials. In the United Kingdom, a listed building is a building or structure of special historical or architectural importance; listing offers the building legal protection against demolition or modification, which requires permission from the local planning authority. Listed buildings are divided into three categories—grade I, grade II*, and grade II—which reflect the relative significance of the structure and may be a factor in planning decisions. Grade I is the most significant and accounts for 2.5% of listed buildings, while grade II accounts for 92%. Grade II* is the intermediate grade accounting for the remaining 5.5%; it is reserved for "particularly important buildings of more than special interest".
The Nelson Monument is a monument to Admiral Horatio Nelson, in Exchange Flags, Liverpool, England. It was designed by Matthew Cotes Wyatt and sculpted by Richard Westmacott. It stands to the north of the Town Hall and was unveiled in 1813.
The Machine Gun Corps Memorial, also known as The Boy David, is a memorial to the casualties of the Machine Gun Corps in the First World War. It is located on the north side of the traffic island at Hyde Park Corner in London, near the Wellington Arch, an Equestrian statue of the Duke of Wellington, the Royal Artillery Memorial, the New Zealand War Memorial, and the Australian War Memorial.
The Bromley War Memorial in Bromley, Greater London, England commemorates the fallen of World War I and World War II. It was designed by British sculptor Sydney March, of the March family of artists.
The Livesey Hall War Memorial commemorates the fallen of World War I and World War II who had been employed by the South Suburban Gas Company of London. It is also a tribute to those employees who served in the wars. The monument was designed and executed by British sculptor Sydney March, of the March family of artists.
Rochdale Cenotaph is a First World War memorial on the Esplanade in Rochdale, Greater Manchester, in the north west of England. Designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens, it is one of seven memorials in England based on his Cenotaph on Whitehall in London and one of his more ambitious designs. The memorial was unveiled in 1922 and consists of a raised platform bearing Lutyens' characteristic Stone of Remembrance next to a 10-metre (33 ft) pylon topped by an effigy of a recumbent soldier. A set of painted stone flags surrounds the pylon.
Chester War Memorial stands in the grounds of Chester Cathedral in Chester, Cheshire, England. It was designed by Frederick Crossley and Thomas Rayson, and commemorates those who were lost in the two World Wars. The memorial is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II listed building.
Birkenhead War Memorial, or Birkenhead Cenotaph, stands in Hamilton Square, Birkenhead, Merseyside, England, opposite the Town Hall. It consists of a cenotaph in Portland stone with carved figures and panels in Westmorland stone. The memorial was designed by Lionel Budden, and the sculptor was H. Tyson Smith. It was unveiled in 1925 by Lieutenant-General Sir Richard H. K. Butler. The memorial is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II* listed building.
The Bootle War Memorial is in Bootle South Recreation Ground, Bootle, Sefton, Merseyside, England. It was paid for partly by a grant from the local council, and partly by public subscription. The sculptor was Herman Cawthra, with assistance in the design from Hubert Ernest Bulmer, the borough's art director. The monument consists of a mother and child on top of an obelisk, which is surrounded by the figures of three servicemen. It was unveiled in 1922, and the names of those killed in the Second World War were added in 1948. The memorial was recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II listed building in 1986, and upgraded to Grade II* in 2018.
A Memorial to Queen Victoria stands in Woodhouse Moor, Leeds, West Yorkshire, England.
The Queen Victoria Memorial in Lancaster, Lancashire, England, is a Grade II* listed building. It stands in the centre of Dalton Square, Lancaster facing Lancaster Town Hall. It was erected in 1906, being commissioned and paid for by James Williamson, 1st Baron Ashton.
Watford Museum is a local museum in Watford, Hertfordshire, in the United Kingdom. It is owned by Watford Borough Council and is located on the Lower High Street in Watford. The museum opened in 1981 and is housed in a Grade II-listed Georgian town house which was previously the premises of Benskins Brewery. Its collection includes fine art, displays about local heritage, industry and sport, with a special collection related to the history of the Cassiobury Estate.
The Anglo-Belgian Memorial, also known as the Belgian Gratitude Memorial or the Belgian Refugees Memorial, is a war memorial on Victoria Embankment in London, opposite Cleopatra's Needle. It was a gift from Belgium, as a mark of thanks for assistance given by the UK during the First World War, and in particular for sheltering thousands of Belgian refugees who fled from the war. It is a Grade II* listed building.
St Mary's Watford is a Church of England church in Watford, Hertfordshire, in the United Kingdom. It is situated in the town centre on Watford High Street, approximately 25 kilometres (16 mi) outside London. St Mary's is the parish church of Watford and is part of the Anglican Diocese of St Albans. Thought to be at least 800 years old, the church contains burials of a number of local nobility and some noteworthy monumental sculpture of the Elizabethan and Jacobean eras.
Lewes War Memorial is a war memorial at the top of School Hill in the centre of Lewes in East Sussex, prominently sited at the junction of High Street and Market Street. It commemorates 251 men from Lewes who died in the First World War, and 126 who died in the Second World War. It was unveiled in 1922 and became a listed building in 1985.
Oldham War Memorial is a war memorial in Oldham, England, comprising a large bronze sculpture group on a granite plinth. It was built to commemorate the men of Oldham who were killed in the First World War. Bronze plaques on the wall of the churchyard nearby list the fallen, including Mabel Drinkwater, a nurse who died after an operation at Oldham Royal Infirmary. A mechanised roll of honour was added in the 1950s, listing the men from Oldham who were killed in the Second World War. The memorial became a Grade II listed building in 1973. The listing was upgraded to Grade II* in December 2016.
Norwich War Memorial is a First World War memorial in Norwich in Eastern England. It was designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens, the last of his eight cenotaphs to be erected in England. Prior to Lutyens' involvement, several abandoned proposals had been made for commemorating Norwich's war dead, and by 1926 the newly elected lord mayor was determined to see the construction of a memorial before he left office. He established an appeal to raise funds for local hospitals in memory of the dead as well as a physical monument. He commissioned Lutyens, who designed an empty tomb (cenotaph) atop a low screen wall from which protrudes a Stone of Remembrance. Bronze flambeaux at either end can burn gas to emit a flame. Lutyens also designed a roll of honour, on which the names of the city's dead are listed, which was installed in Norwich Castle in 1931.
Mary Pownall (1862-1937) was a British sculptor. She was active from 1890 until 1937. She is particularly associated with Watford.
St Michael Cornhill War Memorial is a First World War memorial by the entrance to the church of St Michael Cornhill, facing Cornhill in the City of London. The memorial became a Grade II* listed building in December 2016 ; the church itself is Grade I listed.
Horse and Rider is a 1974 bronze equestrian sculpture by Elisabeth Frink. The work was commissioned for a site in Mayfair; another cast is in Winchester. It was described by Frink as "an ageless symbol of man and horse".