War memorial

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Shrine of Remembrance in Melbourne, Australia Melbourne war memorial02.jpg
Shrine of Remembrance in Melbourne, Australia
Jatiyo Smriti Soudho in Bangladesh commemorates those who gave their lives in the Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971 Sriti shoud.jpeg
Jatiyo Smriti Soudho in Bangladesh commemorates those who gave their lives in the Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971
Monument for the defenders of Jerusalem in 1948 dedicated to Israeli soldiers who fought for the liberation of the Jewish Quarter of Jerusalem during the Israeli War of Independence Andrtt yzkvr - qryyt hlAvm.jpg
Monument for the defenders of Jerusalem in 1948 dedicated to Israeli soldiers who fought for the liberation of the Jewish Quarter of Jerusalem during the Israeli War of Independence
An M4 Sherman tank in the centre of Bastogne, Belgium Sherman a Bastogne 1.JPG
An M4 Sherman tank in the centre of Bastogne, Belgium
The Monument to the dead of World War II commemorates Brazil's participation and losses in the Second World War Pracinhas-CCBY.jpg
The Monument to the dead of World War II commemorates Brazil's participation and losses in the Second World War
The National War Memorial in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada OttawaWarMemorial.jpg
The National War Memorial in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
The Monument to the People's Heroes in Beijing, China Monument to the People's Heroes.jpg
The Monument to the People's Heroes in Beijing, China
The Unknown Soldier Memorial in Cairo, Egypt honours Egyptians and Arabs who lost their lives in the 1973 October War. Tomb of Unknown Soldier Egypt.jpg
The Unknown Soldier Memorial in Cairo, Egypt honours Egyptians and Arabs who lost their lives in the 1973 October War.
Pacifist memorial at Gentioux, France with the inscription Maudite soit la guerre (Cursed be war) Gentioux Monument aux morts pacifiste 1.JPG
Pacifist memorial at Gentioux, France with the inscription Maudite soit la guerre (Cursed be war)
German memorial commemorating soldiers from the town of Niederaltdorf who died in World War I Niedaltdorf-kriegerdenkmal.jpg
German memorial commemorating soldiers from the town of Niederaltdorf who died in World War I
India Gate, Monument in New Delhi, India India Gate in New Delhi 03-2016.jpg
India Gate, Monument in New Delhi, India
The al-Shaheed Monument in Baghdad dedicated to the Iraqi soldiers who died in the Iran-Iraq War US Navy 031130-N-0000S-001 An HH-60H helicopter assigned to the Firehawks of Helicopter Combat Search and Rescue Squadron-Special Warfare Support Special Squadron Five (HCS-5).jpg
The al-Shaheed Monument in Baghdad dedicated to the Iraqi soldiers who died in the Iran–Iraq War
The Irish National War Memorial Gardens in Dublin, Ireland honour Irish soldiers who gave their lives in the First World War, as well as those who fought in Irish regiments of the various Allied armies Memorial Rose-Garden 001.JPG
The Irish National War Memorial Gardens in Dublin, Ireland honour Irish soldiers who gave their lives in the First World War, as well as those who fought in Irish regiments of the various Allied armies
The Yasukuni Shrine in Japan Yasukuni Jinja 7 032.jpg
The Yasukuni Shrine in Japan
Main building and museum of the War Memorial of Korea War Memorial of Korea main building.JPG
Main building and museum of the War Memorial of Korea
Monument to the Heroes of the Warsaw Uprising in Poland. Warsaw wwII 1.jpg
Monument to the Heroes of the Warsaw Uprising in Poland.
The Kranji War Cemetery in Singapore is the final resting place for Allied soldiers who perished during the Battle of Singapore and the subsequent Japanese occupation of the island Kranji War Memorial 02.jpg
The Kranji War Cemetery in Singapore is the final resting place for Allied soldiers who perished during the Battle of Singapore and the subsequent Japanese occupation of the island
Monument to the Women of World War II in London, United Kingdom Women of World War II.jpg
Monument to the Women of World War II in London, United Kingdom
The Liberty Memorial, National World War I Memorial of the USA in Kansas City, Missouri KCMO LibertyMemorial 2003.jpg
The Liberty Memorial, National World War I Memorial of the USA in Kansas City, Missouri
Original 1915 war memorial in Genoa Voltri (Italy); sculptor Vittorio Lavezzari (1864-1938). The monument was meled down during the Second World War for its materials. Voltri 1.jpg
Original 1915 war memorial in Genoa Voltri (Italy); sculptor Vittorio Lavezzari (1864–1938). The monument was meled down during the Second World War for its materials.
The Auckland War Memorial Museum in New Zealand with the Cenotaph in front AucklandMuseum edit gobeirne.jpg
The Auckland War Memoria l Museum in New Zealand with the Cenotaph in front

A war memorial is a building, monument, statue or other edifice to celebrate a war or victory, or (predominating in modern times) to commemorate those who died or were injured in a war.

Contents

Symbolism

Historical usage

The oldest war memorial in the United Kingdom is Oxford University's All Souls College. It was founded in 1438 with the provision that its fellows should pray for those killed in the long wars with France. [1]

All Souls College, Oxford college of the University of Oxford

All Souls College is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England.

Hundred Years War Series of conflicts and wars between England and France during the 14th and 15th-century

The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the French House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France. Each side drew many allies into the war. It was one of the most notable conflicts of the Middle Ages, in which five generations of kings from two rival dynasties fought for the throne of the largest kingdom in Western Europe. The war marked both the height of chivalry and its subsequent decline, and the development of strong national identities in both countries.

War memorials for the Franco-Prussian War (187071) were the first in Europe to have rank-and-file soldiers commemorated by name. [2] Every soldier that was killed was granted a permanent resting-place as part of the terms of the Treaty of Frankfurt (1871).

Franco-Prussian War significant conflict pitting the Second French Empire against the Kingdom of Prussia and its allies

The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War, often referred to in France as the War of 1870, was a conflict between the Second French Empire and later the Third French Republic, and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia. Lasting from 19 July 1870 to 28 January 1871, the conflict was caused by Prussian ambitions to extend German unification and French fears of the shift in the European balance of power that would result if the Prussians succeeded. Some historians argue that the Prussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck deliberately provoked the French into declaring war on Prussia in order to draw the independent southern German states—Baden, Württemberg, Bavaria and Hesse-Darmstadt—into an alliance with the North German Confederation dominated by Prussia, while others contend that Bismarck did not plan anything and merely exploited the circumstances as they unfolded. None, however, dispute the fact that Bismarck must have recognized the potential for new German alliances, given the situation as a whole.

Treaty of Frankfurt (1871) 1871 peace treaty ending the Franco-Prussian War

The Treaty of Frankfurt was a peace treaty signed in Frankfurt on 10 May 1871, at the end of the Franco-Prussian War.

To commemorate the millions who died in World War I, war memorials became commonplace in communities large and small around the world.[ citation needed ]

World War I 1914–1918 global war originating in Europe

World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.

Modern usage

In modern times the main intent of war memorials is not to glorify war, but to honor those who have died. Sometimes, as in the case of the Warsaw Genuflection of Willy Brandt, they may also serve as focal points of increasing understanding between previous enemies.

Willy Brandt German social-democratic politician; Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany

Willy Brandt was a German statesman who was leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) from 1964 to 1987 and served as Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany from 1969 to 1974. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1971 for his efforts to strengthen cooperation in western Europe through the EEC and to achieve reconciliation between West Germany and the countries of Eastern Europe. He was the first Social Democrat chancellor since 1930.

Using modern technology an international project is currently archiving all post-1914 Commonwealth war graves and Commonwealth War Graves Commission memorials to create a virtual memorial (see The War Graves Photographic Project for further details).

The Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC) is an intergovernmental organisation of six independent member states whose principal function is to mark, record and maintain the graves and places of commemoration of Commonwealth of Nations military service members who died in the two World Wars. The Commission is also responsible for commemorating Commonwealth civilians who died as a result of enemy action during World War II. The Commission was founded by Sir Fabian Ware and constituted through Royal Charter in 1917 named the Imperial War Graves Commission. The change to the present name took place in 1960.

The War Graves Photographic Project original aim was to photograph every war grave, individual memorial, Ministry of Defence grave, and family memorial of serving military personnel from WWI to the present day. However, due to its popularity the project has now extended the remit to cover all nationalities and military conflicts and make these available within a searchable database. These memorials are all over the world where British, Commonwealth and other nations servicemen and women are buried or commemorated.

History

World War I

During the First World War, many nations saw massive devastation and loss of life. More people lost their lives in the east than in the west, but the outcome was different. In the west, and in response to the victory there obtained, most of the cities in the countries involved in the conflict erected memorials, with the memorials in smaller villages and towns often listing the names of each local soldier who had been killed in addition (so far as the decision by the French and British in 1916 to construct governmentally designed cemeteries was concerned) to their names being recorded on military headstones, often against the will of those directly involved, and without any opportunity of choice in the British Empire (Imperial War Graves Commission). Massive British monuments commemorating thousands of dead with no identified war grave, such as the Menin Gate at Ypres and the Thiepval memorial on the Somme, were also constructed.

War grave Burial place for members of the armed forces or civilians who died during military operations

A war grave is a burial place for members of the armed forces or civilians who died during military campaigns or operations.

Ypres Municipality in Flemish Community, Belgium

Ypres is a Belgian municipality in the province of West Flanders. Though the Dutch Ieper is the official name, the city's French name Ypres is most commonly used in English. The municipality comprises the city of Ypres and the villages of Boezinge, Brielen, Dikkebus, Elverdinge, Hollebeke, Sint-Jan, Vlamertinge, Voormezele, Zillebeke, and Zuidschote. Together, they are home to about 34,900 inhabitants.

The Liberty Memorial, located in Kansas City, Missouri, is a memorial dedicated to all Americans who served in the Great War. For various reasons connected with their character, the same may be said to apply to certain governmental memorials in the United Kingdom (the Cenotaph in London, relating to the Empire in general, and the Scottish National War Memorial in Edinburgh, also with a reference to the Empire, but with particular connections to the United Kingdom, having been opened by the Prince of Wales in 1927 and with the King and the Queen the first visitors and contributors of a casket of the Scottish names for addition within the Shrine). In Maryland, in the center of the city of Baltimore facing the Baltimore City Hall to the west is a geometric paved tree-lined plaza with the War Memorial Building to the east with a large marble decorated civic auditorium and historical and veterans museum below, designed by Laurence Hall Fowler, dedicated 1925.

Pacifist war memorials and those relating to war and peace

After World War I, some towns in France set up pacifist war memorials. Instead of commemorating the glorious dead, these memorials denounce war with figures of grieving widows and children rather than soldiers. Such memorials provoked anger among veterans and the military in general. The most famous is at Gentioux-Pigerolles in the department of Creuse. Below the column which lists the name of the fallen stands an orphan in bronze pointing to an inscription 'Maudite soit la guerre' (Cursed be war). Feelings ran so high that the memorial was not officially inaugurated until 1990 and soldiers at the nearby army camp were under orders to turn their heads when they walked past. Another such memorial is in the small town of Équeurdreville-Hainneville (formerly Équeurdreville) in the department of Manche. Here the statue is of a grieving widow with two small children. [3] [4]

There seems to be no exact equivalent form of a pacifist memorial within the United Kingdom but evidently sentiments were in many cases identical. Thus, and although it seems that this has never been generally recognized, it can be argued that there was throughout the United Kingdom a construction of war memorials with reference to the concept of peace (e.g. West Hartlepool War Memorial in what is now known as Hartlepool (previously West Hartlepool) with the inscription 'Thine O Lord is the Victory' relating to amongst other architecture the 1871 Royal Albert Hall of Arts and Sciences with a frieze including the same words and concluding 'Glory be to God on high and on earth peace').

World War II and later

In many cases, World War I memorials were later extended to show the names of locals who died in the World War II in addition.

Since that time memorials to the dead in other conflicts such as the Korean War and Vietnam War have also noted individual contributions, at least in the West.

In relation to actions which may well in point of fact be historically connected with the world wars even if this happens, for whatever reason, not to be a matter of general discussion (e.g. occupation by Western forces in the 1920s of Palestine and other areas being the homelands of Arabs in the Near East and followed eighty years later in 2001 by the '9/11' raid on New York and elsewhere in the United States) similar historically and architecturally significant memorials are also designed and constructed (vide National September 11 Memorial).

Types

They shall grow not old, as we that are left grow old.
Age shall not weary them, nor the years condemn.
At the going down of the sun and in the morning
We will remember them.
Blow out, you bugles, over the rich Dead.
There are none of these so lonely and poor of old,
But dying has made us rarer gifts than gold.

Tank monument

A tank monument or armoured memorial is a tank withdrawn from military service and displayed to commemorate a battle or a military unit. Obsolete tanks may also be displayed as gate guards outside military bases.

Immediately following the First World War, a number of obsolete tanks were presented to towns and cities throughout Britain for display and for use as memorials: most were scrapped in the 1920s and 1930s, but one that survives is a Mark IV Female tank at Ashford, Kent.

Several Second World War tanks are preserved as memorials to major armoured offensives in the Ardennes, such as the Battle of Sedan and the Battle of the Bulge. These include: [6]

A plinth-mounted T-35/85 tank commemorates the soldiers of the 5th Guards Tank Army, at Znamianka in Ukraine. [7]

In cemeteries

Many cemeteries tended by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission have an identical war memorial called the Cross of Sacrifice designed by Sir Reginald Blomfield that varies in height from 18 ft to 32 ft depending on the size of the cemetery. If there are one thousand or more burials, a Commonwealth cemetery will contain a Stone of Remembrance, designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens with words from the Wisdom of Sirach: "Their name liveth for evermore"; all the Stones of Remembrance are 11 ft 6 ins long and 5 ft high with three steps leading up to them.

Arlington National Cemetery has a Canadian Cross of Sacrifice with the names of all the citizens of the USA who lost their lives fighting in the Canadian forces during the Korean War and two World Wars.

Controversy

War memorials can sometimes be politically controversial. A notable case is that of the Yasukuni Shrine in Japan, where a number of convicted World War II war criminals are interred. Chinese and Korean representatives have often protested against the visits of Japanese politicians to the shrine. The visits have in the past led to severe diplomatic conflicts between the nations, and Japanese businesses were attacked in China after a visit by former Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi to the shrine was widely reported and criticized in Chinese and Korean media. [8]

In a similar case, former German chancellor Helmut Kohl was criticised by writers Günter Grass and Elie Wiesel for visiting the war cemetery at Bitburg (in the company of Ronald Reagan) which also contained the bodies of SS troops. [9] Unlike the case of the Yasukuni Shrine, there was no element of intentional disregard of international opinion involved, as is often claimed for the politician visits to the Japanese shrine.

Soviet World War II memorials included quotes of Joseph Stalin's texts, frequently replaced after his death. Such memorials were often constructed in city centres and now are sometimes regarded as symbols of Soviet occupation and removed, which in turn may spark protests (see Bronze Soldier of Tallinn).

The Fusiliers' memorial arch to the Royal Dublin Fusiliers who fought in the Boer War, erected at 1907 in St. Stephen's Green, Dublin, was called "Traitors' Gate" by the Redmondites and later Irish Republicans, from whose point of view Irish soldiers going off to fight the British Empire's wars were traitors to Ireland. The sharpness of the controversy gradually faded, and while the term "Traitors' Gate" is still in occasional colloquial use in Dublin daily life, it has mostly lost its pejorative meaning.

In Australia, in 1981, historian Henry Reynolds raised the issue of whether war memorials should be erected to Indigenous Australians who had died fighting against British invaders on their lands.

How, then, do we deal with the Aboriginal dead? White Australians frequently say that 'all that' should be forgotten. But it will not be. It cannot be. Black memories are too deeply, too recently scarred. And forgetfulness is a strange prescription coming from a community which has revered the fallen warrior and emblazoned the phrase 'Lest We Forget' on monuments throughout the land. [...] [D]o we make room for the Aboriginal dead on our memorials, cenotaphs, boards of honour and even in the pantheon of national heroes? If we are to continue to celebrate the sacrifice of men and women who died for their country can we deny admission to fallen tribesmen? There is much in their story that Australians have traditionally admired. They were ever the underdogs, were always outgunned, yet frequently faced death without flinching. If they did not die for Australia as such they fell defending their homelands, their sacred sites, their way of life. What is more the blacks bled on their own soil and not half a world away furthering the strategic objectives of a distant Motherland whose influence must increasingly be seen as of transient importance in the history of the continent. [10]

Reynolds' suggestion proved controversial. [11] Occasional memorials have been erected to commemorate Aboriginal people's resistance to colonisation, or to commemorate white massacres of Indigenous Australians. These memorials have often generated controversy. For example, a 1984 memorial to the Kalkadoon people's "resistance against the paramilitary force of European settlers and the Queensland Native Mounted Police" was "frequently shot at" and "eventually blown up". [12]

With the advent of long war, some memorials are constructed before the conflict is over, leaving space for extra names of the dead. For instance, the Northwood Gratitude and Honor Memorial in Irvine, CA, memorializes an ongoing pair of US wars, and has space to inscribe the names of approximately 8,000 fallen servicemembers, [13] while the UK National Memorial Arboretum near Lichfield in England hosts the UK's National Armed Forces Memorial which displays the names of the more than 16,000 people who have already died on active service in the UK armed forces since World War II, with more space available for future fatalities.

Notable examples

Africa

Americas

Asia

Europe

The Motherland Calls, Mamayev Kurgan in Volgograd Rodina-mat' zovet!.jpg
The Motherland Calls, Mamayev Kurgan in Volgograd

Oceania

See also

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Southampton Cenotaph War memorial in Southampton, England

Southampton Cenotaph is a First World War memorial designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens and located in Watts Park in Southampton, southern England. The memorial was the first of dozens by Lutyens to be built in permanent form and it influenced his later designs, including The Cenotaph on Whitehall in London. It is a tapering, multi-tiered pylon which culminates in a series of diminishing layers before terminating in a sarcophagus which features a recumbent figure of a soldier. In front is an altar-like Stone of Remembrance. The cenotaph contains multiple sculptural details including a prominent cross, the town's coat of arms, and two lions. The names of the dead are inscribed on three sides. Although similar in outline, Lutyens' later cenotaphs were much more austere and featured almost no sculpture. The design uses abstract, ecumenical features and lifts the recumbent soldier high above eye level, anonymising him.

World War I memorials commemorate the events and the casualties of World War I

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Rochdale Cenotaph war memorial in Rochdale, Greater Manchester

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South African War Memorial, Richmond Cemetery war memorial to South African soldiers

The South African War Memorial is a First World War memorial in Richmond Cemetery in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. Designed by architect Sir Edwin Lutyens, the memorial is in the form of a cenotaph, similar to that on Whitehall, also by Lutyens. It was commissioned by the South African Hospital and Comforts Fund Committee to commemorate the 39 South African soldiers who died of their wounds at a military hospital in Richmond Park during the First World War. The memorial was unveiled by General Jan Smuts in 1921 and was the focus of pilgrimages from South Africa through the 1920s and 1930s, after which it was largely forgotten until the 1980s when the Commonwealth War Graves Commission took responsibility for its maintenance. It has been a grade II listed building since 2012.

Roma War Memorial and Heroes Avenue

War Memorial and Heroes Avenue is a heritage-listed memorial at Bungil Street, Roma, Maranoa Region, Queensland, Australia. It was built in 1920. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992.

Sacrario militare dei Caduti Oltremare building in Bari, Italy

The Sacrario dei Caduti Oltremare is a World War II memorial located in the city of Bari, in the Apulia region of Southern Italy. The shrine, inaugurated in 1967, houses the remains of 75,098 Italian soldiers killed overseas in both World Wars as well as in Italy’s colonial wars.

Redipuglia War Memorial Italian war cemetery

The Redipuglia War Memorial is a World War I memorial located on the Karst Plateau near the village of Fogliano Redipuglia, in the Friuli Venezia Giulia region of northeastern Italy. It is the largest war memorial in Italy and one of the largest in the world, housing the remains of 100,187 Italian soldiers killed between 1915 and 1917 in the eleven battles fought on the Karst and Isonzo front.

References

  1. "History of the College". All Soul's College, University of Oxford. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  2. Varley, Karine. Under the Shadow of Defeat: The War of 1870–71 in French Memory. Palgrave 2008.
  3. Coëpel, Philippe (1997). Que maudite soit la guerre. Bricqueboscq: Editions des champs. p. 204. ISBN   2-910138-08-9.
  4. For pictures of the pacifist memorials at Gentioux-Pigerolles and at Équeurdreville-Hainneville and elsewhere see fr:Monument aux morts pacifiste
  5. Piehler, G. Kurt ‘’Remembering War the American Way’’, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., 1995 pp. 105–109
  6. "Ardennes Area Battlefield", World War II, Dorling Kindersley, 2010, p. 318, ISBN   978-1405335201
  7. "Шукач – dombrovskii_a посетил(а) '5-я гвардейская танковая армия. Памятник освободителям Знаменки'". www.shukach.com. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  8. Japan: Chinese foreign minister on fence-mending visit Radio Australia program transcript, date unknown
  9. Reagan Joins Kohl in Brief Memorial at Bitburg Graves New York Times , Monday 6 May 1985
  10. Reynolds, Henry, The Other Side of the Frontier: Aboriginal resistance to the European invasion of Australia, 1981, ISBN   0-86840-892-1, p. 202
  11. Reynolds, Henry, Why Weren't We Told?, 1999, ISBN   0-14-027842-7, chapter 12: "Lest We Forget", pp. 169–184
  12. ibid, pp. 177–178
  13. "northwood_memorial.jpg (image)". 3.bp.blogspot.com. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  14. "Northwood Gratitude and Honor Memorial > Home". www.northwoodmemorial.com. Retrieved 31 March 2018.

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France:

Germany:

Ireland:

Japan:

United Kingdom:

United States: