Williamson Tunnels

Last updated

Williamson Tunnels
Williamson Tunnels - The Banqueting Hall.jpg
The Banqueting Hall chamber beneath Joseph Williamson's house.
TypeSubterranean folly
Location Edge Hill, Liverpool
Coordinates 53°24′17″N2°57′32″W / 53.404775°N 2.958839°W / 53.404775; -2.958839
Built1810-1840
Restored1995-present
Restored by Friends Of Williamson's Tunnels
Joseph Williamson Society
Architect Joseph Williamson
Merseyside UK relief location map.jpg
Red pog.svg
Location of Williamson Tunnels in Merseyside

The Williamson Tunnels are a series of extensive subterranean excavations, of unknown purpose, in the Edge Hill area of Liverpool, England. They were created under the direction of tobacco merchant, landowner and philanthropist Joseph Williamson between 1810 and 1840. Although popularly described as "tunnels", the majority comprise brick or stone vaulting over excavations in the underlying sandstone. The purpose of the works remains unclear and remains a subject of heavy speculation; suggestions include commercial quarrying, a philanthropic desire to provide employment, and Williamson's own eccentric interests.

Edge Hill, Liverpool District of Liverpool

Edge Hill is a district of Liverpool, England, south east of the city centre, bordered by Kensington, Wavertree and Toxteth.

Liverpool City and metropolitan borough in England

Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500. Its metropolitan area is the fifth-largest in the UK, with a population of 2.24 million in 2011. The local authority is Liverpool City Council, the most populous local government district in the metropolitan county of Merseyside and the largest in the Liverpool City Region.

Joseph Williamson (philanthropist) English businessman, property owner and philanthropist

Joseph Williamson was an English eccentric, businessman, property owner and a philanthropist who is best known for the Williamson Tunnels, which were constructed under his direction in the Edge Hill area of Liverpool, England. His philanthropy earned him the nickname the King of Edge Hill, whilst his tunnel-building activity earned him posthumous nicknames, including the Mole of Edge Hill and the Mad Mole.

Contents

They remained derelict, inaccessible and filled with rubble and spoil, until archaeological investigations were carried out in 1995. Since then volunteers have re-discovered and excavated an extensive network of tunnels across several sites, with sections open to the public. Guided tours are available at the Williamson Tunnels Heritage Centre and the Friends Of Williamson's Tunnels, and excavation continues as volunteers continue to uncover new sections.

History

FoWT volunteers digging in a newly-discovered section of tunnel, May 2019. Williamson Tunnels - Excavation Work.jpg
FoWT volunteers digging in a newly-discovered section of tunnel, May 2019.

In 1805, wealthy businessman Joseph Williamson acquired an area of land in Mason Street, Edge Hill, Liverpool, which was then a largely undeveloped outcrop of sandstone with a scattering of scars from small-scale quarrying. The land was held under a lease from the West Derby Waste Commissioners, who retained rights to the minerals under it. He started to build houses on the site.

New Red Sandstone

The New Red Sandstone, chiefly in British geology, is composed of beds of red sandstone and associated rocks laid down throughout the Permian to the end of the Triassic, that underlie the Jurassic-Triassic age Penarth Group. The name distinguishes it from the Old Red Sandstone which is largely Devonian in age, and with which it was originally confused due to their similar composition.

According to the account of a 19th century Liverpool antiquarian, James Stonehouse, these houses were eccentric in design and "of the strangest description" without any rational plans. The ground behind the houses dropped sharply and in order to provide large gardens Williamson built arched terraces over which the gardens could be extended. When these were complete he continued to employ his workmen: according to Stonehouse this was sometimes to carry out apparently pointless tasks, such as moving rubble from one place to another, then back again. [1] Williamson took on many more labourers, recruiting from among the poor and needy of the area, including soldiers left unemployed at the end of the Napoleonic War. The many buildings erected by Williamson included a large house in Mason Street occupied by himself and his wife. [2]

Antiquarian Specialist or aficionado of antiquities or things of the past

An antiquarian or antiquary is an aficionado or student of antiquities or things of the past. More specifically, the term is used for those who study history with particular attention to ancient artifacts, archaeological and historic sites, or historic archives and manuscripts. The essence of antiquarianism is a focus on the empirical evidence of the past, and is perhaps best encapsulated in the motto adopted by the 18th-century antiquary Sir Richard Colt Hoare, "We speak from facts, not theory."

Williamson's major project was to excavate an extensive series of brick-arched tunnels in various directions and depths within the sandstone to the limits of, and possibly beyond, the land owned by him. Stonehouse, who traversed parts of the tunnels in 1845, described the excavations as a labyrinth of "vaulted passages [...] pits deep, and yawning chasms", [3] including a "fearful opening" beneath Grinfield Street with two "complete four-roomed houses" in the side of it connected by a spiral passage. [4] This apparent tunnel-building activity continued until Williamson's death in 1840. [5] In August 1867 the Liverpool Porcupine described the tunnels as being "a great nuisance" because drains ran straight into them, in one place creating a cess pool full of offensive water 15 feet (5 m) deep, and they were being used for dumping refuse, [6] including down chutes built into the buildings above for the purpose. In the later 19th century the Corporation of Liverpool began backfilling the tunnels with rubble and other waste from building demolition, a process that sporadically continued into the 20th century. Little information about the excavations had been recorded and nearly all knowledge of them, and of Williamson's life, was derived from the writing of James Stonehouse. His account was not published at the time, but was referenced in his later works and was finally reprinted in full by Charles Hand as part of a 1916 article, "Joseph Williamson, the King of Edge Hill", published in the Transactions of the Lancashire and Cheshire Historical Society.

Cesspit Either an underground holding tank (sealed at the bottom) or a soak pit (not sealed at the bottom)

A cesspit, is a term with various meanings: it is used to describe either an underground holding tank or a soak pit. It can be used for the temporary collection and storage of feces, excreta or fecal sludge as part of an on-site sanitation system and has some similarities with septic tanks or with soak pits. Traditionally, it was a deep cylindrical chamber dug into the earth, having approximate dimensions of 1 metre diameter and 2–3 metres depth. Their appearance was similar to that of a hand-dug water well.

Early investigations and archaeology

In 1881, the North Staffordshire Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers conducted a field trip to Liverpool during which they surveyed some of the surviving excavations, producing a plan and dog-leg section of the main parts of the site. [7]

In the early 20th century soldiers from the West Lancashire Territorial Forces Association explored the tunnels. Their drill hall in Mason Street stood on top of one of the tunnels. In 1907 the Association produced a map of the tunnels, which was incomplete because many of them were filled with rubble. The map also showed the course of the London and North Western Railway cutting between Edge Hill and Lime Street stations which ran through the area of the Williamson tunnels. [8] However, public interest in the tunnels waned through much of the 20th century and many of the sites were further buried or destroyed by new construction. However from the 1990s onwards there has been a steadily-increasing interest, leading to the formation of the two major societies and, eventually, excavation of tunnels across several sites. In 1995 a geology student from Liverpool University carried out a micro-gravity survey of the site. Some of his findings were ambiguous, perhaps due to rubble filling the tunnels. and not all of his findings seemed to corresponded with those of the Forces Association's 1907 map. Later that year a professional firm, Parkman, carried out a survey on behalf of the Joseph Williamson Society. [9]

The corner tunnel and arch constructed out of individual sandstone blocks, with a view of Biddulph's factory rubbish chute. Williamson's Tunnels.jpg
The corner tunnel and arch constructed out of individual sandstone blocks, with a view of Biddulph's factory rubbish chute.

As interest in the tunnels grew, both societies eventually acquired the rights to begin digging, and over time a considerable portion of Williamson's legacy has been rediscovered and cleared of the last two centuries' accumulated spoil and rubble. In the course of excavation, a substantial amount of artefacts have been found - some dating back as far as the 1830s - including bottles, plates and other crockery, pipes, vintage signs, military items and other items, much of which was likely refuse dumped in the tunnels. Many of these finds have been cleaned and returned to display in the tunnels. It is now possible for members of the public to visit the tunnels on guided tours at several sites.

The Joseph Williamson Society and Heritage Centre

Graffiti, circa 1960s, on a wall of the Williamson Tunnels Williamson's Tunnels Engravings.jpg
Graffiti, circa 1960s, on a wall of the Williamson Tunnels

The Joseph Williamson Society was founded in 1989. It was incorporated as a private limited company in 1996 and acquired charitable status in 1997. Its aim is to promote interest in the life and philanthropic achievements of Joseph Williamson and takes the form of talks, tours, publications and educational visits. [10] In autumn 2002, after much excavation, removal of rubble and renovation, one of the three sections of the site, the Stable Yard section, was opened to the public as the Williamson Tunnels Heritage Centre ( 53°24′14″N2°57′31″W / 53.403991°N 2.958721°W / 53.403991; -2.958721 ) under the trusteeship of the Joseph Williamson Society. [11] Visitors are taken on a guided tour which includes the south tunnel and the double tunnel and various artefacts are on view including some of the items which have been uncovered in the excavations. [12] A programme of events and entertainments is organised on the site. [13] The entry to the heritage centre was formerly part of the Lord Mayor's Stable Yard which closed in 1993. [14] The stable became the home for a horse again when Pop arrived in 2003. [15]

Public Access

The Heritage Centre allows visitors to see a substantial section of the underground tunnels, including the impressive Double Tunnel. They are open Tuesday-Sunday during the summer months (Thursday-Sunday in Winter) with no advance booking required [16] . The Centre is also used as a unique venue [17] for live music and events, as well as being available for use as location for filming and training.

The Friends of Williamson's Tunnels (FoWT)

The 'banqueting hall' beneath Joseph Williamson's house. This section was most likely built as a stone quarry in the 18th century and later vaulted over. The chamber was filled with spoil, and was excavated between 2017 and 2018. Williamson Tunnels - The Banqueting Hall.jpg
The 'banqueting hall' beneath Joseph Williamson's house. This section was most likely built as a stone quarry in the 18th century and later vaulted over. The chamber was filled with spoil, and was excavated between 2017 and 2018.

The Friends of Williamson's Tunnels (FoWT) is a registered charity and one of the largest local history societies in the UK, committed to exploring, excavating and preserving the tunnels [18] . They currently offer free-of-charge guided tours to the general public across two sites, which led to them being presented with the 'Hidden Gem' award at Liverpool Tourism Awards 2019 [19] . It is a registered charity managed by a Board Of Trustees, with all excavation work, guided tours and other activities undertaken by volunteers [20] .

Sites

FoWT's main base on Mason Street is the site of Joseph Williamson's house, largely demolished except for a section of the facade which remains standing. However, excavations there have uncovered an extensive portion of the site below ground level, as well as numerous tunnels branching off in various directions at different depths. Much of this has now been cleared and is accessible, though for the purposes of safety and insurance visitors must be registered FoWT members to access the house site [21] . Beneath the basement area is a large chamber known as the Banqueting Hall. This area - now accessed via a narrow descending channel known as the Gash - gained its nickname from oft-repeated stories of Williamson holding lavish banquets for his most loyal friends, though it is highly unlikely the space was ever used for this purpose. As of the 2019 the Banqueting Hall has been completely cleared of spoil, but excavations continue in newly-discovered tunnels leading off from the main chamber.

A second section of tunnels is accessed from the Paddington site. The tunneling here has a small surface footprint and consists of a series of underground galleries on several levels, leading to a large vaulted chamber approximately 40 feet (12 m) high from floor to ceiling. The floor of this chamber, referred to as Level 4, is approximately 60 feet (18 m) below ground level. The chamber was cleared in 2016 after several years of excavation [22] . Other suspected tunnels have been discovered branching away from the site, but are yet to be cleared as they would fall outside the current boundaries of the FoWT site. The general public can access this section of tunnels with free guided tours on Wednesdays and Sundays [23] .

In The Media

The tunnels have gained popularity as a filming location for TV and film, alongside documentary features studying the tunnels and volunteers. Historian and broadcaster Dan Snow highlighted the tunnels in an episode of the History Hit podcast [24] , recorded live on site. Australian actor Alan Fletcher photographed the tunnels for travel/photography show Photo Number 6 [25] . The group has featured in various news reports, including domestic TV channels like the BBC [26] and ITV [27] as well as film crews from across the globe [28] [29] .

The tunnels have also been used as a venue for paranormal investigations [30] , art classes [31] , emergency services training and other activities not directly related to the history of the site.

Public Access

Public visits to the site are free of charge, and run on Wednesdays and Sundays [32] . These pre-booked tours, typically taking around an hour, start at the house site on Mason St and cover the Paddington tunnels. Tours below ground at the house site covering the Wine Bins, Banqueting Hall and other areas are for Trust members only, though membership can be taken out on the day. Membership allows a holder to volunteer for digging and other activities, visit all areas of the sites (where practical), and attend monthly meetings with free guest speakers.

The tunnels

The known tunnels are in an area to the east of the Liverpool Metropolitan Cathedral in a rectangle bordered by Mason Street, Grinfield Street, Smithdown Lane and Paddington. Their full extent is unknown and many are still blocked by rubble. They encompass a range of designs and sizes, from vast chambers to spaces inaccessible by an average human. [33] [34] The Banqueting Hall is around 60 feet (18 m) long and up to 27 feet (8.2 m) high, while the largest Paddington chamber is shorter but an impressive 40 feet (12 m) deep. Still larger excavations, such as the vaulted "Great Tunnel" seen by James Stonehouse and Charles Hand [35] and noted on the Army surveys, have yet to be discovered.

Purpose of the tunnels

The purpose behind the building of these tunnels is a source of widespread speculation. According to Stonehouse's contemporary account, Williamson was secretive about his motives, leading to a great deal of speculative local folklore. Upon hearing that Stonehouse planned to publish his research on Williamson's excavations, Williamson's friend, the artist Cornelius Henderson, threatened to sue Stonehouse both for libel and trespass, leading to the paper's suppression for some years. [36]

The most commonly related explanation is that they were a philanthropic endeavour: Williamson's own explanation was reputed to be that his workers "all received a weekly wage and were thus enabled to enjoy the blessing of charity without the attendant curse of stifled self respect", his prime motive being "the employment of the poor". [37] Certain features of the tunnels appear to support this theory; there are many architectural features that seem unnecessarily decorative, hidden deep blow the ground in chambers that would likely have been dimly lit and rarely seen. By way of example, at the Mason Street site a beautifully-constructed stone arch was recently uncovered in an otherwise plainly-constructed side chamber, deep underground, with no obvious explanation for its purpose [38] . These features could be interpreted as Williamson helping his employees improve their skills, and it's likely that the experience in tunneling would have helped many gain employment on the groundbreaking Liverpool and Manchester Railway in the 1830s.

A panoramic view showing the remains of the Joseph Williamson's house, at basement level. Williamson Tunnels - Joseph Williamson's House Site.jpg
A panoramic view showing the remains of the Joseph Williamson's house, at basement level.

Another suggestion was that he was a member of an extremist religious sect fearing that the end of the world was near and that the tunnels were built to provide refuge for himself and his friends: [39] however there is no evidence for this interpretation, which originated with a casual suggestion made on a television programme, and Williamson was a practising member of the Church of England. [40]

Stonehouse and Hand both felt the excavations were simply the largely purposeless folly of an eccentric man: however while Stonehouse called the works "stupendously useless", Hand concluded that Williamson's philanthropic purpose was a noble one and felt he "should have been both pleased and proud to have known him". [41] Many of Williamson's workers were said to have later found employment in railway construction with the skills they had learned.

Scores of crockery, from the 1830s onwards, are among the countless artefacts found in the tunnels during clearance work. Williamson's Tunnels Plates.jpg
Scores of crockery, from the 1830s onwards, are among the countless artefacts found in the tunnels during clearance work.

More recent research by academics at Edge Hill University has concluded that the 'tunnels' were in fact largely an effort by Williamson to restore ground levels after quarrying. [42] Most of the excavations are directly within a band of high-quality sandstone, and show clear signs of having been carried out using established quarrying techniques designed to produce pieces of stone suitable for building use: [43] in addition, the cross-sections of the works produced by the 1881 survey reveal a typical stone quarry profile. [7] The apparently aimless nature of the excavations was likely a reflection of the work following the best "seam" of stone, avoiding imperfections and master joints. [44] The tunnels had, therefore, originally been unregulated "slot quarries" for sandstone, used for prestige buildings in the rapidly-expanding Liverpool of the Georgian era, and by subsequently vaulting them over Williamson was able to restore ground levels, facilitating his extensive housing developments on the site. [42]

While during Williamson's lifetime it was locally rumoured that he was earning large sums from quarrying, Williamson had apparently claimed that he made little money from the stone extraction and used it largely within his own properties. [44] It seems possible that his secrecy was at least partly driven by a need to conceal his avoidance of both large amounts of income tax and mineral rights duties due to the West Derby Waste Commission from the sale of sandstone. [44] Knowledge of the latter dealings may have been the reason behind Henderson's threat to sue James Stonehouse. [44] Despite retiring from the tobacco trade in 1818, Williamson left an estate valued at £40,000 - the equivalent of around £40 million in 2013 - and it appears that a large proportion of this income must have come from his excavations and subsequent property development. [45]

Related Research Articles

Tunnel An underground passage made for traffic

A tunnel is an underground passageway, dug through the surrounding soil/earth/rock and enclosed except for entrance and exit, commonly at each end. A pipeline is not a tunnel, though some recent tunnels have used immersed tube construction techniques rather than traditional tunnel boring methods.

Liverpool and Manchester Railway Railway in England

The Liverpool and Manchester Railway (L&MR) opened on 15 September 1830 between the Lancashire towns of Liverpool and Manchester in England. The world's first inter-city railway, it was also the first railway to rely exclusively on locomotives driven by steam power, with no horse-drawn traffic permitted at any time; the first to be entirely double track throughout its length; the first to have a signalling system; the first to be fully timetabled; and the first to carry mail.

Edge Hill railway station station serving the district of Edge Hill in Liverpool, England

Edge Hill railway station serves the district of Edge Hill in Liverpool, England.

Manchester Dock (Liverpool)

Manchester Dock was a dock on the River Mersey in England and a part of the Port of Liverpool. The dock was not part of the interconnected dock system, but was connected directly to the river.

St James Cemetery Grade I listed cemetery in Liverpool, United Kingdom

St James's Cemetery is an urban park behind Liverpool Cathedral that is below ground level. Until 1825, the space was a stone quarry, and until 1936 it was used as the Liverpool city cemetery. It has been designated a Grade I Historic Park by Historic England.

Drilling and blasting

Drilling and blasting is the controlled use of explosives and other methods such as gas pressure blasting pyrotechnics, to break rock for excavation. It is practiced most often in mining, quarrying and civil engineering such as dam, tunnel or road construction. The result of rock blasting is often known as a rock cut.

Bidston Hill Hill and woodland in Bidston, Wirral, England

Bidston Hill is 100 acres (0.40 km2) of heathland and woodland that contains historic buildings and ancient rock carvings. It is located on the Wirral Peninsula, near the Birkenhead suburb of Bidston, in Merseyside, England. With a peak of 231 feet (70 m), Bidston Hill is one of the highest points on the Wirral. The land was part of Lord Vyner's estate and purchased by Birkenhead Corporation in 1894 for use by the public.

Llechwedd Slate Caverns cave in United Kingdom

Llechwedd is a visitor attraction near Blaenau Ffestiniog, Gwynedd, Wales. It details the history of slate quarrying in the town and specifically the Llechwedd quarry in which it is located. The main aspect of Llechwedd is its Llechwedd Deep Mine Tour which has the steepest narrow gauge railway in the UK and travels over 500 feet underground to the disused slate caverns, and the Quarry Explorer Tour which heads out to the furthest reaches of the Llechwedd site to explore the history of mining in the area.

Storeton human settlement in United Kingdom

Storeton is a small village on the Wirral Peninsula, England. It is situated to the west of the town of Bebington and is made up of Great Storeton and Little Storeton, which is classified as a hamlet. At the 2001 Census the population of Storeton was recorded as 150.

Geology of Alderley Edge mountain in United Kingdom

Alderley Edge in Cheshire is one of the classic locations for the study of Triassic sandstones in the United Kingdom. Numerous scientists from the early 19th century up to the present day have studied the area and it is a popular field site for universities around the UK.

Deva Victrix Roman fort

Deva Victrix, or simply Deva, was a legionary fortress and town in the Roman province of Britannia on the site of the modern city of Chester. The fortress was built by the Legio II Adiutrix in the AD 70s as the Roman army advanced north against the Brigantes, and rebuilt completely over the next few decades by the Legio XX Valeria Victrix. In the early 3rd century the fortress was again rebuilt. The legion probably remained at the fortress until the late 4th or early 5th century, upon which it fell into disuse.

Thackley

Thackley is a small suburb near Bradford, West Yorkshire in England. The village is loosely bordered by the village of Idle to the south, to the west by the West Royd area of Shipley and elsewhere by the Leeds and Liverpool Canal. Thackley is the northernmost part of Bradford south of the River Aire.

Chapel of Saint Helena, Jerusalem church building in Jerusalem

The Chapel of Saint Helena is a 12th-century Armenian church in the lower level of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, constructed during the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

Holmbury Hill is a wooded area of 261 metres (856 ft) above sea level and the site of an Iron Age hillfort. The Old Saxon word "holm" can be translated as hill and "bury" means fortified place. It sits along the undulating Greensand Ridge its summit being 805 feet (245 m) from the elevated and tightly clustered small village of Holmbury St. Mary in Surrey, England which was traditionally part of Shere, 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) away.

Bryn Euryn hillfort in Conwy

Bryn Euryn is a hill which is a Site of Special Scientific Interest in Conwy County Borough, Wales; grid reference SH832798. There is a trig point at the summit. It lies above the seaside town of Rhos-on-Sea and village of Mochdre, Conwy. It is 131 metres above sea level, and is listed as a HuMP. At the bottom of the hill are the remains of Llys Euryn.

Olive Mount cutting Railway cutting on the Liverpool-Manchester line in England

Olive Mount cutting, which was opened in 1830, is a 2-mile (3.2 km) sandstone railway cutting on the line to Manchester, 4 miles (6.4 km) from Liverpool. The cutting is 80 feet (24 m) deep and is situated between Wavertree Technology Park and Broad Green railway stations. The railway's engineer, George Stephenson, had hoped to avoid the problem of creating the cutting for the Liverpool and Manchester Railway by routing the line further north. However, that plan was objected to by the Earl of Derby and the Earl of Sefton.

Harmers Wood

Harmers Wood is a small woodland with sandstone quarries in Helsby village in the north of Cheshire, England. It is a nine-acre woodland containing mainly silver birch trees with some oak and a smattering of holly trees, rowan, hawthorn and gorse. The wood is owned by the Friends of Harmers Wood Trust Ltd as a not-for-profit business managed on behalf of the local community.

William (Bill) Jones Varley, FSA was a British geographer and archaeologist, particularly known for his excavations of English Iron Age hillforts, including Maiden Castle and Eddisbury hillfort in Cheshire, Old Oswestry hillfort in Shropshire, and Castle Hill in West Yorkshire. He was also a pioneer of geographical research and education in colonial Ghana where he worked in 1947–56, and was involved in historical conservation there.

References

Notes

  1. Stonehouse, in Hand, C. R. (1916), 14
  2. Hand, C. R. ( 1928), 88. In the 20th century this house was numbered 44.
  3. Stonehouse, in Hand, C. R. (1916), 6
  4. Stonehouse, in Hand, C. R. (1916), 7
  5. Murden, Jon, 'Williamson, Joseph (1769-1840)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography , Oxford University Press, online edn, October 2006 , accessed 30 July 2008.
  6. Moore 1998 , p. 80.
  7. 1 2 Lucas, Bridson and Jones (2014) "Williamson Tunnels, Edge Hill, Liverpool: an example of Georgian and early Victorian quarry restoration" in Hunger, Brown and Lucas (eds) Proceedings of the 17th Extractive Industry Geology Conference, EIG, p.11
  8. Moore 1998 , pp. 79–80.
  9. Moore 1998 , p. 81.
  10. About the Centre, The Joseph Williamson Society, retrieved 4 August 2008
  11. About FoWT, Friends of Williamson's Tunnels, retrieved 4 August 2008
  12. Come and see the Tunnels!, Friends of Williamson's Tunnels, retrieved 4 August 2008
  13. Calendar of Events, The Joseph Williamson Society, retrieved 5 August 2008
  14. Clark, Edward, 'The Cart Horse and the Quay', Countryside Publications
  15. New arrival at Stables, Friends of Williamson's Tunnels, 29 October 2003, retrieved 5 August 2008
  16. "Williamson Tunnels Heritage Centre - Information - Opening Times". www.williamsontunnels.co.uk. Retrieved 24 June 2019.
  17. "Williamson Tunnels, Liverpool". Skiddle.com. Retrieved 24 June 2019.
  18. Introduction/FAQ, Friends Of Williamson's Tunnels, retrieved 23 June 2019
  19. Liverpool City Tourism Awards - Winners 2019, Liverpool City Region Enterprise Partnership, retrieved 23 June 2019
  20. "About". Friends of Williamson's Tunnels. 13 August 2013. Retrieved 24 June 2019.
  21. Visit The Tunnels, Friends Of Williamson's Tunnels, retrieved 23 June 2019
  22. Williamson's Tunnels volunteers get ready for next stage of mammoth 'big dig', Liverpool Echo, retrieved 23 June 2019
  23. Friends of Williamson's Tunnels, Eventbrite, retrieved 23 June 2019
  24. Dan Snow's History Hit - Williamson Tunnels, Player.fm, retrieved 23 June 2019
  25. Episode 10 - Highlights, Photo Number 6, retrieved 24 June 2019
  26. Digging into Liverpool's secret tunnels, BBC News, retrieved 24 June 2019
  27. Mysterious Liverpool tunnel system transformed into tourist attraction | ITV News, Youtube, retrieved 24 June 2019
  28. 7NEWS Sydney, Facebook, retrieved 24 June 2019, A mysterious network of tunnels and chambers is gradually being uncovered below the English city of Liverpool
  29. Subterranean Secrets: Liverpool's Mysterious Williamson Tunnels, Great Big Story, retrieved 24 June 2019
  30. "Liverpool Ghost Hunt Williamson Tunnels | Haunted Evenings". Haunted Evenings Events. Retrieved 24 June 2019.
  31. admin. "Williamson Tunnels: dot-art: Sketching in the Tunnels". Artinliverpool.com. Retrieved 24 June 2019.
  32. "Friends of Williamson's Tunnels". Eventbrite. Retrieved 24 June 2019.
  33. FAQ, Friends of Williamson's Tunnels, retrieved 4 August 2008
  34. Virtual Tour, Friends of Williamson's Tunnels, retrieved 4 August 2008
  35. Hand, C. R. (1927), 89
  36. Hand, C. R. (1916), 3
  37. Quoted in Whittington-Egan 1985 , p. 9.
  38. chrisiles (29 October 2018). "New Tunnel update…". Friends of Williamson's Tunnels. Retrieved 24 June 2019.
  39. The Story, Friends of Williamson's Tunnels, archived from the original on 31 August 2009, retrieved 31 July 2008
  40. The lost tunnels buried deep beneath the UK, BBC, 03-09-15
  41. Hand, C. R. (1929) 101-102
  42. 1 2 Speed, "Williamson Tunnels – are they really quarries?", Edge Hill University, 6-08-12
  43. Lucas, Bridson and Jones (2014) "Williamson Tunnels, Edge Hill, Liverpool: an example of Georgian and early Victorian quarry restoration" in Hunger, Brown and Lucas (eds) Proceedings of the 17th Extractive Industry Geology Conference, EIG, p.13
  44. 1 2 3 4 Lucas, Bridson and Jones (2014) p.15
  45. Lucas, Bridson and Jones (2014) p.22

Bibliography

  • Moore, Jim (1998), Underground Liverpool: Joseph Williamson - The King of Edge Hill, Liverpool: The Bluecoat Press, ISBN   1-872568-43-2
  • Whittington-Egan, Richard (1985), Liverpool Characters and Eccentrics, The Gallery Press, ISBN   978-0-900389-22-1

Further reading