Zeiss projector

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The Mark I projector installed in the Deutsches Museum in 1923 was the world's first planetarium projector. ZeissMark1.jpg
The Mark I projector installed in the Deutsches Museum in 1923 was the world's first planetarium projector.
The Mark III modified projector installed in the Planetario Humboldt 1950 in Caracas - Venezuela.It is the oldest in Latin America. Proyector Planetario Humboldt, Caracas, Venezuela (144898406).jpg
The Mark III modified projector installed in the Planetario Humboldt 1950 in Caracas - Venezuela.It is the oldest in Latin America.
Marks II through VI utilized two small spheres of lenses separated along a central axis. ZeissPlanetariumProjector MontrealPlanetarium.jpg
Marks II through VI utilized two small spheres of lenses separated along a central axis.
Beginning with Mark VII, Zeiss projectors adopted a new, egg-shaped design. Universarium in Planetarium Hamburg.jpg
Beginning with Mark VII, Zeiss projectors adopted a new, egg-shaped design.
The Mark IX Universarium is currently the most advanced model. This example was installed in 2006 at The Griffith Observatory in Los Angeles. Zeiss mkIX Universarium.jpg
The Mark IX Universarium is currently the most advanced model. This example was installed in 2006 at The Griffith Observatory in Los Angeles.
Closeup of a lens bearing sphere of the Zeiss Mark IV planetarium projector on display at the Nehru Planetarium in Mumbai, India. Zeiss Mark IV Sphere.jpg
Closeup of a lens bearing sphere of the Zeiss Mark IV planetarium projector on display at the Nehru Planetarium in Mumbai, India.

A Zeiss projector is one of a line of planetarium projectors manufactured by the Carl Zeiss Company.

Contents

The first modern planetarium projectors were designed and built in 1924 by the Zeiss Works of Jena, Germany in 1924. [1] Zeiss projectors are designed to sit in the middle of a dark, dome-covered room and project an accurate image of the stars and other astronomical objects on the dome. They are generally large, complicated, and imposing machines.

The first Zeiss Mark I projector (the first planetarium projector in the world) was installed in the Deutsches Museum in Munich in August, 1923. [2] It possessed a distinctive appearance, with a single sphere of projection lenses supported above a large, angled "planet cage". Marks II through VI were similar in appearance, using two spheres of star projectors separated along a central axis that contained projectors for the planets. Beginning with Mark VII, the central axis was eliminated and the two spheres were merged into a single, egg-shaped projection unit.

History of development and production

The Mark I was created in 1923–1924 and was the world's first modern planetarium projector. [2] The Mark II was developed during the 1930s by Carl Zeiss AG in Jena. Following WWII division of Germany and the founding of Carl Zeiss (West Germany) in Oberkochen (while the original Jena plant was located in East Germany), each factory developed its own line of projectors. [3]

Marks III – VI were developed in Oberkochen (West Germany) from 1957 to 1989. Meanwhile, the East German facility in Jena developed the ZKP projector line. [3] The Mark VII was developed in 1993 and was the first joint project of the two Zeiss factories following German reunification. [3]

As of 2011, Zeiss currently manufactures three main models of planetarium projectors. The flagship Universarium models continue the "Mark" model designation and use a single "starball" design, where the fixed stars are projected from a single egg-shaped projector, and moving objects such as planets have their own independent projectors or are projected using a full-dome digital projection system. The Starmaster line of projectors are designed for smaller domes than the Universarium, but also use the single starball design. The Skymaster ZKP projectors are designed for the smallest domes and use a "dumbbell" design similar to the Mark II-VI projectors, where two smaller starballs for the northern and southern hemispheres are connected by a truss containing projectors for planets and other moving objects. [4]

Between 1923 and 2011, Zeiss manufactured a total of 631 projectors. [5] Therefore, the following table is highly incomplete.

PlanetariumZeiss Projector ModelAcquisition DateEnd DateRemarks
Sijthoff planetarium  [ nl ], The Hague, NetherlandsMark I19341976Destroyed by fire, although the projector has been restored. [6]
Silesian Planetarium, Chorzów, PolandMark II19552018 Silesian Planetarium, the oldest Mark II still in use worldwide, the oldest and biggest planetarium in Poland.

Retired in July 2018, will be reopened after upgrade in mid 2020.

Tycho Brahe Planetarium, Copenhagen, DenmarkStarmaster19892012The only experienced operator in Denmark retired in 2012. Jesper H.
Adler Planetarium, Chicago, Illinois, USAMark II/III19301969Projector was converted from Mark II to Mark III from 1959 to 1961 [7] [8] [9]
Mark VI19692011Replaced with "Digital Starball" system from Global Immersion Ltd.
Planetario Luis Enrique Erro, Mexico City, MexicoMark IV19642006It was the first planetarium in Mexico opened to general public and it is also one of the oldest in Latin America. [10]
Planetario Simon Bolivar, Maracaibo, VenezuelaStarmaster1968PresentIt was the second planetarium in Venezuela.
Buhl Planetarium, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USAMark II19391994Now on exhibit (but not in operation) at the Carnegie Science Center.
Bangkok Planetarium, Bangkok, ThailandMark IV19642016Replaced by an Evans & Sutherland Digistar 5. The projector is still inside the planetarium but not in operation. [11]
Denki kagakukan  [ ja ], Osaka, JapanMark II (No.23)19371989First Planetarium in Japan
Preserved at Osaka Science Museum.
Tonichi Tenmonkan  [ ja ], Tokyo, JapanMark II (No.26)193825 May 1945Destroyed by Bombing of Tokyo
Gotoh Planetarium  [ ja ], Tokyo, JapanMark IV(No.1)19572001
Akashi Municipal Planetarium  [ ja ], Akashi, JapanUniversal(UPP)23/31960PresentThe oldest projector which is operating in Japan.
Nagoya City Science Museum, Nagoya, JapanMark IV19622010Closed for renovation in August 2010
Mark IX2011PresentRe-opened in March 2011 [12] [13]
Fernbank Planetarium, Atlanta, Georgia, USAMark V1967/8?Present [14]
Hamburg Planetarium, Hamburg, GermanyMark II19251957Projector was acquired by the City of Hamburg in 1925, the planetarium was opened to the public in 1930.
Mark IV19571983
Mark VI19832003
Mark IX2006Present
Hayden Planetarium, New York, New York, USAMark II19351960 [15]
Mark IV19601973
Mark VI19731997
Mark IX1999Present
Humboldt Planetarium  [ es ], Caracas, VenezuelaMark III (modified)1950PresentThis planetarium is the oldest in Latin America. [16] [17]
Johannesburg Planetarium, Johannesburg, South AfricaMark III (upgraded from Mark II)1960PresentAcquired from the city of Hamburg and upgraded to Mark III prior to installation. [18]
Manitoba Museum, Winnipeg, Manitoba, CanadaMark Vs1967Present [19]
Galileo Galilei planetarium, Buenos Aires, ArgentinaMark V19672011Replaced by MEGASTAR II A [20]
Morehead Planetarium, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USAMark II19491969 [21]
Mark VI19696 May 2011
James S. McDonnell Planetarium, St. Louis, Missouri, USAMark IX2001Presentreplaced an Evans & Sutherland Digistar [22]
Samuel Oschin Planetarium, Griffith Observatory, Los Angeles, California, USAMark IV19642006
Mark IX2006Present
Strasenburgh Planetarium, Rochester, New York, USAMark VI1968PresentOriginally cost $240,234 – in 1968 dollars. [23]
Planetario de Bogotá, Bogotá, Bogotá, ColombiaMark VI1969Present [24]
Fiske Planetarium, Boulder, Colorado, USAMark VI19752012Replaced by an Ohira Tech MEGASTAR. [25]
Planetario Universidad de Santiago  [ es ], Santiago, ChileMark VI1972Present [26] [27]
Calouste Gulbenkian Planetarium  [ pt ], Lisbon, PortugalUPP 23/419652004 [28]
Mark IX2005Present
Delafield Planetarium, Agnes Scott College, Decatur, Georgia, USASkymaster ZKP-32000Present [29]
Charles Hayden Planetarium, Boston Museum of Science, Boston, MA, USAMark VI19702010 [30]
Starmaster2011Present [31]
Nehru Planetarium, Mumbai, IndiaMark IV19772003Replaced by an Evans & Sutherland Digistar 3 [32]
Planetario Ulrico Hoepli, Milan, ItalyMark IV1968Present [33]
Planetario Ciudad de Rosario, Rosario, Santa Fe, ArgentinaMark IV1962PresentProjector was acquired by the City of Rosario in 1962, the planetarium was opened to the public in 1984 [34]
Planetarium (Belgium), Brussels, BELGIUMMark II19351966Planetarium was closed between 1939 and 1954. Closed again in 1966. Building and projector were destroyed in 1969. A new building with a new projector was built in 1976. [35] [36] [37] [38]
UPP 23/51976present
Moscow Planetarium, Moscow, RussiaMark II19291976Details preserved at Moscow Planetarium
Mark VI19771994Preserved at Moscow Planetarium
Planetarium ceased work in 1994
Mark IX2010PresentProjector was acquired in 2010, the planetarium was renovated and opened to the public in 2011
London Planetarium, Baker Street, London, UKMark IV19581995Now in Science Museum collection. [39] [40]
Chabot Space and Science Center, Oakland, California, USAMark VIII1999PresentAs of 2016, the Mark VIII projector unit was successfully repaired, after several years being dysfunctional.
Cozmix, Bruges, BelgiumZKP 3b2002Present [41]
Espaço do Conhecimento do UFMG, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, BrazilZKP 42010Present [42]
Montreal Planetarium, Montreal, Quebec, CanadaMark V19662011Now at exhibit at the Rio Tinto Alcan Planetarium [43]
Sri Lanka Planetarium, Colombo, Sri Lanka Mark IV1965PresentThis was a gift from east Germany
Planetário Professor Francisco José Gomes Ribeiro (Colégio Estadual do Paraná), Curitiba, Paraná, BrazilZKP 11978Present
Planetário da Fundação Espaço Cultural, João Pessoa, Paraíba, BrazilSpacemaster1982Present [44]
Sternwarte Planetarium SIRIUS, Schwanden near Sigriswil, Switzerland ZKP 220002014
ZKP 42014Present

See also

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