The destroyed B-17 at the crash site
|Date||October 2, 2019|
|Site|| Bradley International Airport, Windsor Locks, Connecticut, United States |
|Aircraft type||Boeing B-17G-85-DL Flying Fortress|
|Aircraft name||Nine-O-Nine (marked as)|
42-31909 (marked as)
|Flight origin||Bradley International Airport|
|Destination||Bradley International Airport|
On October 2, 2019, a Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress owned by the Collings Foundation crashed at Bradley International Airport, Windsor Locks, Connecticut, United States. Seven of the thirteen people on board were killed, and the other six, as well as one person on the ground, were injured. The aircraft was destroyed by fire, with only the tail and a portion of one wing remaining.
The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress is a four-engined heavy bomber developed in the 1930s for the United States Army Air Corps (USAAC). Competing against Douglas and Martin for a contract to build 200 bombers, the Boeing entry outperformed both competitors and exceeded the air corps' performance specifications. Although Boeing lost the contract because the prototype crashed, the air corps ordered 13 more B-17s for further evaluation. From its introduction in 1938, the B-17 Flying Fortress evolved through numerous design advances, becoming the third-most produced bomber of all time, behind the four-engined B-24 and the multirole, twin-engined Ju 88.
The Collings Foundation is a private non-profit educational foundation located in Stow, Massachusetts, founded in 1979 by Robert F. Collings and Caroline Collings with a mission dedicated to the preservation and public display of transportation-related history, namely automobile and aviation history. The Collings Foundation is headquartered at a small private airfield in Stow that includes a small museum that opens for special events and pre-scheduled tour groups. On July 4, 2013, Military Vehicle Technology Foundation founded by Jacques Littlefield, donated their entire collection of military vehicles to the Collings Foundation. The vehicles are now the centerpiece of the new American Heritage Museum, located at the Collings campus in Stow.
Bradley International Airport is a civil/military airport in Windsor Locks, Connecticut. Owned and operated by the Connecticut Airport Authority, it is the second-largest airport in New England.
The aircraft was a 74-year-oldBoeing B-17 Flying Fortress, military serial number 44-83575 (variant B-17G-85-DL) with civilian registration N93012. US$269(equivalent to $2,139 in 2018); being in relatively good condition, it was restored to airworthy condition for use as a water bomber over the course of ten years, entering civilian service in 1977.The aircraft was painted to represent a different B-17G, the 91st Bomb Group's Nine-O-Nine , with military serial number 42-31909 (variant B-17G-30-BO), which had been scrapped shortly after World War II at Kingman, Arizona. During its original military career, the aircraft operated as an Air-Sea Rescue aircraft until 1952, when it was reassigned to the Air Force Special Weapons Command for use as a specimen in weapons-effects testing. In this role, it was subjected to three nuclear explosions as part of Operation Tumbler–Snapper. The aircraft was purchased as scrap in 1965 for a price of
An aircraft registration is a code unique to a single aircraft, required by international convention to be marked on the exterior of every civil aircraft. The registration indicates the aircraft's country of registration, and functions much like an automobile license plate. This code must also appear in its Certificate of Registration, issued by the relevant National Aviation Authority (NAA). An aircraft can only have one registration, in one jurisdiction, though it is changeable over the life of the aircraft.
Nine-O-Nine was a Boeing B-17G-30-BO Flying Fortress heavy bomber, of the 323rd Bomb Squadron, 91st Bomb Group, that completed 140 combat missions during World War II, believed to be the Eighth Air Force record for most missions, without loss to the crews that flew it. A different B-17G, painted as a representation of the original Nine-O-Nine, crashed at Bradley International Airport in Windsor Locks, Connecticut, on October 2, 2019.
World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from more than 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 70 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.
Following its operator's liquidation in 1985,the aircraft was acquired by the Collings Foundation in January 1986, restored to its 1945 configuration, and N93012 was flying as Nine-O-Nine by August 1986. While operated by the Collings Foundation, it was involved in two prior accidents: on August 23, 1987, it overran the runway on landing at Beaver County Airport near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and on July 9, 1995, it was damaged on landing at Karl Stefan Memorial Airport in Norfolk, Nebraska, as the result of an undercarriage (landing gear) malfunction.
Beaver County Airport or is a county-owned public airport three miles northwest of Beaver Falls, in Beaver County, Pennsylvania.
Norfolk is a city in Madison County, Nebraska, United States, 113 miles northwest of Omaha and 83 miles west of Sioux City at the intersection of U.S. Routes 81 and 275. The population was 24,210 at the 2010 census, making it the ninth-largest city in Nebraska. It is the principal city of the Norfolk Micropolitan Statistical Area.
The October 2019 crash and resulting fire destroyed most of the aircraft. Only the left wing and part of the tail remained.
The "living history" flight was delayed 40 minutes because of difficulty starting one of the four engines. The pilot shut down the other three engines and used a spray can to "blow out the moisture" in the engine that balked.The aircraft took off from Bradley International Airport in Windsor Locks, Connecticut, at 09:48 local time (13:48 UTC). It carried three crew and ten passengers. A witness reported that an engine was sputtering and smoking. At 09:50, two minutes after takeoff, the pilot radioed that there was a problem with engine number 4. The control tower diverted other traffic for an emergency landing.
Windsor Locks is a town in Hartford County, Connecticut, United States. As of the 2010 census, its population was 12,498. It is the site of Bradley International Airport, which serves the Greater Hartford-Springfield region and occupies approximately 1/3 of the town. Windsor Locks is also the site of the New England Air Museum.
UTC−04:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of −04:00. It is observed in the Eastern Time Zone during the warm months of daylight saving time, as Eastern Daylight Time. The Atlantic Time Zone observes it during standard time . It is observed all year in the Eastern Caribbean.
Coordinated Universal Time is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time. It is within about 1 second of mean solar time at 0° longitude, and is not adjusted for daylight saving time. In some countries where English is spoken, the term Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is often used as a synonym for UTC and predates UTC by nearly 300 years.
The aircraft came in low, touched down 1,000 feet (300 m) short of the runway, clipped the instrument landing system (ILS) antenna array, veered to the right off the runway across a grassy area and taxiway, then crashed into a de-icing facility at 09:54; the aircraft then burst into flames.
An instrument landing system (ILS) enables a pilot to land an airplane by instrument approach when the pilot cannot see the runway. It is defined by the International Telecommunication Union as a service provided by a station as follows:
A radionavigation system which provides aircraft with horizontal and vertical guidance just before and during landing and, at certain fixed points, indicates the distance to the reference point of landing.
A taxiway is a path for aircraft at an airport connecting runways with aprons, hangars, terminals and other facilities. They mostly have a hard surface such as asphalt or concrete, although smaller general aviation airports sometimes use gravel or grass.
De-icing is the process of removing snow, ice or frost from a surface. Anti-icing is understood to be the application of chemicals that not only de-ice but also remain on a surface and continue to delay the reformation of ice for a certain period of time, or prevent adhesion of ice to make mechanical removal easier.
Seven occupants were killed, and the remaining six were injured severely enough to be taken to the hospital, including one who was airlifted.Among the dead were the pilot and co-pilot, aged 75 and 71 respectively. One person on the ground was injured (see below). The airport was closed for 3½ hours after the crash.
One of the passengers on the aircraft, a Connecticut Air National Guardsman, managed to open an escape hatch after the crash, despite having a broken arm and collarbone. An airport employee, who had been working in the building into which the aircraft had crashed, ran to the wreckage to help pull injured passengers from the burning aircraft. The employee suffered severe burns on his hands and arms and was taken by ambulance to the hospital.
The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) opened an investigation into the accident.A "go team" was dispatched to Bradley International Airport, headed by Jennifer Homendy. The NTSB removed some wreckage to their laboratory for further analysis, completing operations at the scene by October 8.
In aviation, an accident is defined by the Convention on International Civil Aviation Annex 13 as an occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft, which takes place from the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until all such persons have disembarked, and in which a) a person is fatally or seriously injured, b) the aircraft sustains significant damage or structural failure, or c) the aircraft goes missing or becomes completely inaccessible. Annex 13 defines an incident as an occurrence, other than an accident, associated with the operation of an aircraft that affects or could affect the safety of operation.
United Airlines Flight 232 was a regularly scheduled United Airlines flight from Denver (USA) to Chicago, continuing to Philadelphia (USA). On July 19, 1989, the DC-10 serving the flight crash-landed at Sioux City, Iowa, after suffering a catastrophic failure of its tail-mounted engine, which led to the loss of many flight controls. At the time, the aircraft was en route from Stapleton International Airport to O'Hare International Airport. Of the 296 passengers and crew on board, 111 died during the accident, while 185 people survived. The crash was the fifth-deadliest one involving the DC-10, behind Turkish Airlines Flight 981, American Airlines Flight 191, Air New Zealand Flight 901, and UTA Flight 772. Despite the deaths, the accident is considered a prime example of successful crew resource management because of the large number of survivors and the manner in which the flight crew handled the emergency and landed the airplane without conventional control.
Blue Grass Airport is a public airport in Fayette County, Kentucky, 6 miles west of downtown Lexington. Located among world-renowned horse farms and situated directly across from Keeneland Race Course, Blue Grass Airport is the primary airport serving central and eastern Kentucky. More than 1.3 million passengers depart or arrive annually at Blue Grass Airport. In 2017, the airport served 1,316,847 passengers via four major airline carriers: Allegiant Air, American Airlines, Delta Air Lines and United Airlines.
Green Bay–Austin Straubel International Airport, is a county owned public use airport in Brown County, Wisconsin, United States, which serves Northeastern Wisconsin. The airport is located seven nautical miles (13 km) southwest of downtown Green Bay, in the village of Ashwaubenon. It is included in the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2019–2023, in which it is categorized as a non-hub primary commercial service facility. It sits on portions of land encompassing Green Bay and the Oneida Nation of Wisconsin's Indian reservation. It has two runways and is used for commercial air travel and general aviation. There are two concourses with six gates each.
On October 14, 2004, Pinnacle Airlines Flight 3701 crashed while flying from Little Rock National Airport in Little Rock, Arkansas to Minneapolis–Saint Paul International Airport in Minnesota. No passengers were aboard. Both pilots were killed. Federal investigators determined the crash was due to the pilots' unprofessional behavior and disregard for training and procedures.
Addison Airport is a public airport in Addison, in Dallas County, Texas. It is nine miles (14 km) north of downtown Dallas.
Cincinnati Municipal Airport – Lunken Field is a public airport in Cincinnati, Ohio, three miles (5 km) southeast of Downtown Cincinnati. It is owned by the city of Cincinnati and serves private aircraft and the fleets of local corporations. It serves a few commercial flights and is the second largest airport serving Cincinnati after Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport. It is known as Lunken Airport or Lunken Field, after Eshelby Lunken. It is bounded by US Route 50 to the west, US Route 52 and the Ohio River to the south, the Little Miami River to the east, and Ohio Route 125 to the north. The airport is headquarters and hub for Cincinnati-based public charter airline Ultimate Air Shuttle, serving 5 destinations in the eastern United States with 16 peak daily flights. Lunken is also home to small charter airline Flamingo Air and its aviation school.
Hartford–Brainard Airport is a towered public airport three miles (5 km) southeast of downtown Hartford, in Hartford County, Connecticut. It is owned by the Connecticut Airport Authority. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2017–2021 categorized it as a regional reliever airport facility.
On July 10, 1991, a L'Express Airlines Beechcraft C99, flying as Flight 508 originating in New Orleans, and in transit from Mobile to Birmingham, crashed while attempting to make an ILS approach to Runway 5 at Birmingham Municipal Airport in Birmingham, Alabama. The plane crashed in the Fairview area near Five Points West in the Ensley neighborhood and subsequently injured four persons on the ground, as well as destroying two homes. Of the 15 occupants on board, there were 13 fatalities. The cause of the crash was attributed to the captain's decision to attempt an instrument approach into severe thunderstorms resulting in a loss of control of the airplane. To date it is the deadliest commercial aviation accident in Alabama history.
This is a partial list of accidents and incidents involving the Boeing-designed B-17 Flying Fortress. Combat losses are not included except for a very few cases denoted by singular circumstances. A few documented drone attrition cases are also included.
On December 27, 1968, North Central Airlines Flight 458 (N2045) crashed into a hangar while attempting a night landing in poor weather at O'Hare International Airport in Chicago, Illinois, in the United States. Of the 41 passengers and 4 crew, only 17 passengers and one crew member survived. One person was killed and six injured on the ground.
Northwest Airlink Flight 2268 was a commuter flight between Cleveland-Hopkins International Airport in Cleveland, Ohio, and Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport in Romulus, Michigan, just outside Detroit. The flight was operated by Fischer Brothers Aviation, doing business as Northwest Airlink, and was operated by a CASA C-212 aircraft. On March 4, 1987, the plane crashed while attempting to land. Nine of the 19 passengers and crew on board were killed in the accident.
Asiana Airlines Flight 214 was a scheduled transpacific passenger flight from Incheon International Airport near Seoul, South Korea, to San Francisco International Airport in the United States. On the morning of 6 July 2013, the Boeing 777-200ER crashed on final approach into San Francisco International Airport. Of the 307 people on board, three died; another 187 were injured, 49 of them seriously. Among the injured were four flight attendants who were thrown onto the runway while still strapped in their seats when the tail section broke off after striking the seawall short of the runway. It was the first fatal crash of a Boeing 777 since that aircraft type entered service in 1995.
Parker County Airport is a privately owned public airport in Hudson Oaks, Parker County, Texas, United States. The airport serves the city of Weatherford, and is located approximately 5 nautical miles (9.3 km) east of the central business district.
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