Admiral of France

Last updated
Admiral of France
Amiral de France
French Navy NG-OF10.svg France-Navy-OF-10 Sleeve.svg
Shoulder and sleeve insignia
CountryFlag of France.svg  France
Service branchCivil and Naval Ensign of France.svg  French Navy
Rank group Flag officer
NATO rank code OF-10
Formation1270
Next lower rank Amiral
Equivalent ranks Marshal of France

Admiral of France (French : Amiral de France) is a French title of honour. It is the naval equivalent of Marshal of France and was one of the Great Officers of the Crown of France.

Contents

History

The title was created in 1270 by Louis IX of France, during the Eighth Crusade. At the time, it was equivalent to the office of Constable of France. The Admiral was responsible for defending the coasts of Picardy, Normandy, Aunis, and Saintonge. In times of war, it was his responsibility to assemble French merchant ships into a navy. He had to arm, equip, and supply the ships for the course of the war, and give letters of marque to corsairs. In peacetime, he was responsible for the maintenance of the royal fleet (when one existed). He was also responsible for maritime commerce and the merchant fleet.

During the modern era, few admirals were sailors — moreover, with the exception of Claude d'Annebault, none of them actually commanded the fleet. It must be said that the actual power of the admiral was rather small, partly because of the creation of other admirals (the Admiral of the Levant for Provence, the Admiral of Brittany, and the Admiral of the West for Guyenne), and because of the creation of the General of the Galleys and the Secretary of State for the Navy.

The title, like the title of Constable, had much more political importance (which would eventually lead to the suppression of both titles). It was also a lucrative position: the admiral was allocated a part of the fines and confiscations imposed by the admiralty, and he had a right to unclaimed ships and shipwrecks as well as a tenth of the spoils taken in battle. He also had juridical rights, comparable to those exercised by the constable and the marshal. This was known as the Table de marbre, after the seat of the admiralty in Paris. A second headquarters of the admiralty was established at Rouen, and about 50 other headquarters were set up at various other places around the coast of France. These tribunals judged cases dealing with fishing disputes and any crimes committed in the country's ports.

The Admiralty was suppressed in 1627 by Cardinal Richelieu, who had been named to the newly created post of Grand Master of Navigation and who wanted to bring all naval authority under one position. The position was recreated in 1669, but was now only an honorific title. The first new admiral was Louis, Count of Vermandois, who at the time was only 2 years old. Thereafter, only Louis Alexandre, Count of Toulouse involved himself in maritime affairs.

It was suppressed once more in 1791, restored in 1805 in the person of Marshal of France Joachim Murat. Currently, the most recent Admiral of France was François Thomas Tréhouart, in 1869.

This dignity remains fully valid today as a 2005 law article recalls: "The title of Marshal of France and that of Admiral of France, is a dignity in the state." [1]

Admirals

Period of grand masters of navigation :

Restoration of title Admiral of France

English admirals

Henry VI of England appointed two English aristocrats during the ministrations of Louis de Culant and André de Laval-Montmorency. Accordingly, they were not recognized by the Kingdom of France.

Related Research Articles

House of Bourbon European royal house of French origin

The House of Bourbon is a European dynasty of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty, the royal House of France. Bourbon kings first ruled France and Navarre in the 16th century. By the 18th century, members of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty held thrones in Spain, Naples, Sicily, and Parma. Spain and Luxembourg have monarchs of the House of Bourbon.

Henri I de Montmorency

Henri I de Montmorency, Marshal of France, and Constable of France, seigneur of Damville, served as Governor of Languedoc from 1563 to 1614.

House of Montmorency

Montmorency, pronounced [mɔ̃.mɔ.ʁɑ̃.si], was one of the oldest and most distinguished noble families in France.

André de Laval-Montmorency, seigneur de Lohéac was a Marshal of France. He was the son of Guy XIII de Laval and Anne de Laval, and a leading member of the House of Laval.

House of Rohan Breton noble family

The House of Rohan is a Breton family of viscounts, later dukes and princes in the French nobility, coming from the locality of Rohan in Brittany. Their line descends from the viscounts of Porhoët and is said to trace back to the legendary Conan Meriadoc. Through the Porhoët, the Rohan are related to the Dukes of Brittany, with whom the family intermingled again after its inception. During the Middle Ages, it was one of the most powerful families in the Duchy of Brittany. They developed ties with the French and English royal houses as well, and played an important role in French and European history.

Grand Constable of France First Officer of the Crown in France before 1789

The Grand Constable of France, was the First Officer of the Crown, one of the original five Great Officers of the Crown of France and Commander in Chief of the King's army. He, theoretically, as lieutenant-general to the King, outranked all nobles in the realm, and was second-in-command only to the King of France.

Grand Chamberlain of France Important position within the French royal court during the Ancien Régime

The Grand Chamberlain of France was one of the Great Officers of the Crown of France, a member of the Maison du Roi, and one of the Great Offices of the Maison du Roi during the Ancien Régime. It is similar in name, but should not be confused with, the office of Grand Chamberman of France, although both positions could accurately be translated by the word chamberlain.

Jean Louis de Nogaret de La Valette French nobleman

Jean Louis de Nogaret de La Valette (1554–1642), created Duke of Épernon, was a powerful member of the French nobility at the turn of the 16th century. He was deeply involved in plots and politics throughout his life.

Grand Falconer of France

The Grand Falconer of France was a position in the King's Household in France from the Middle Ages to the French Revolution.

A Colonel General was an officer of the French army during the Ancien Régime, the French Revolution, the Napoleonic era and the Bourbon Restoration.

When the Viking chieftain Rollo obtained via the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte the territories which would later make up Normandy, he distributed them as estates among his main supporters. Among these lands were the seigneurie of Harcourt, near Brionne, and the county of Pont-Audemer, both of which Rollo granted to Bernard the Dane, ancestor of the lords (seigneurs) of Harcourt. The first to use Harcourt as a name, however, was Anquetil d'Harcourt at the start of the 11th century.

Anne-Adrien-Pierre de Montmorency-Laval

Anne-Adrien-Pierre de Montmorency, 1st Duke of San Fernando Luis, 3rd Duke of Laval-Montmorency, GE, was a peer of France and of Spain.

Galerie des Batailles

The Galerie des Batailles is a gallery occupying the first floor of the Aile du Midi of the Palace of Versailles, joining onto the grand and petit appartement de la reine. 120 m (390 ft) long and 13 m (43 ft) wide, it is an epigone of the grand gallery of the Louvre and was intended to glorify French military history from the Battle of Tolbiac to the Battle of Wagram.

Charles de Montmorency-Damville

Charles de Montmorency, Duke of Damville (1537-1612) was a French nobleman, Baron, later Duke of Damville, Admiral of France.

Charles I de Montmorency was a 14th-century French noble.

Damville may refer to:

Charles II François Frédéric de Montmorency, was the eighth Duke of Piney-Luxembourg and the second Duke of Montmorency (Beaufort), prince of Aigremont and of Tingry, count of Bouteville, of Lassé 1, of Dangu and of Luxe, peer of France, marshal of France in 1757 and the governor of Normandy in 1762. He was the son of Charles I Francois Frederic de Montmorency-Luxembourg and grandson of Marshal François-Henri de Montmorency, duc de Luxembourg. His mother was Marie-Gilonne Gillier de Clérembault, daughter of René.

References

Sources