Bulgaria in Antarctica
|Bulgarian Antarctic Institute|
|National Centre of Polar Research|
|St. Kliment Ohridski Base|
|Lame Dog Hut|
|Livingston Island Museum|
|St. Ivan Rilski Chapel|
|Bulgarian toponyms in Antarctica|
|Antarctic Place-names Commission|
|Military Geographic Service|
The Antarctic Place-names Commission was established by the Bulgarian Antarctic Institute in 1994, and since 2001 has been a body affiliated with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria.
Bulgarian Antarctic Institute is the national Antarctic operator of Bulgaria, organizing annual Antarctic campaigns, maintaining the Bulgarian Antarctic base of St. Kliment Ohridski on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands and five times winners of the Antarctic Institute of the Year Award. The Institute was established in 1993, and comprises several dozens individual members and few institutional ones: the Bulgarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski , Sofia Medical University, and the Atlantic Club of Bulgaria. Founding Chairman of the Institute is Christo Pimpirev.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria is the ministry charged with overseeing the foreign relations of Bulgaria. It has been in existence since shortly after the Liberation of Bulgaria, with the first minister stepping into office on 17 July 1879. Until 1947, it was known as the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Religious Denominations.
The Commission approves Bulgarian place names in Antarctica, which are formally given by the President of the Republic according to the Bulgarian Constitution (Art. 98) and the established international practice.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14,200,000 square kilometres, it is the fifth-largest continent and nearly twice the size of Australia. At 0.00008 people per square kilometre, it is by far the least densely populated continent. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages 1.9 km in thickness, which extends to all but the northernmost reaches of the Antarctic Peninsula.
The Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria is the supreme and basic law of the Republic of Bulgaria. The current constitution was adopted on 12 July 1991 by the 7th Grand National Assembly of Bulgaria, and defines the country as a unitary parliamentary republic. It has been amended five times.
Geographical names in Antarctica reflect the history and practice of Antarctic exploration. The nations involved in Antarctic research give new names to nameless geographical features for the purposes of orientation, logistics, and international scientific cooperation. As of 2018, there are some 19,788 named Antarctic geographical features, including 1,433 features with names given by Bulgaria.Since the Bulgarian Antarctic base is situated in the South Shetland Islands, most of the Bulgarian place names are concentrated in that area too, especially on Livingston Island, Greenwich Island, Robert Island, Snow Island, and Smith Island. However, two early Bulgarian names were given even in 1989 (by the then State Council, a collegial presidency) to geographical features on Alexander Island in relation to field work carried out on that island by the first Bulgarian Antarctic expedition during the 1987/88 season.
St. Kliment Ohridski Base is a Bulgarian Antarctic base on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands.
The South Shetland Islands are a group of Antarctic islands with a total area of 3,687 square kilometres (1,424 sq mi). They lie about 120 kilometres (75 mi) north of the Antarctic Peninsula, and between 430 kilometres (270 mi) to 900 kilometres (560 mi) south-west from the nearest point of the South Orkney Islands. By the Antarctic Treaty of 1959, the islands' sovereignty is neither recognized nor disputed by the signatories and they are free for use by any signatory for non-military purposes.
Livingston Island is an Antarctic island in the Southern Ocean, part of the South Shetlands Archipelago. It was the first land discovered south of 60° south latitude in 1819, a historic event that marked the end of a centuries-long pursuit of the mythical Terra Australis Incognita and the beginning of the exploration and utilization of real Antarctica. The name Livingston, although of unknown derivation, has been well established in international usage since the early 1820s.
In 1995 the Commission developed its own Toponymic Guidelines defining the relevant types of geographical features, specific elements of geographical names, inappropriate names, criteria of names approval, language and spelling, and names approval procedures. In particular, the Guidelines introduced the Streamlined System that was subsequently adopted as the official national system for the Romanization of Bulgarian, eventually becoming part of Bulgarian law by way of the 2009 Transliteration Law,and endorsed also by UN in 2012 and by the USA and UK in 2013.
Romanization of Bulgarian is the practice of transliteration of text in Bulgarian from its conventional Cyrillic orthography into the Latin alphabet. Romanization can be used for various purposes, such as rendering of proper names and place names in foreign-language contexts, or for informal writing of Bulgarian in environments where Cyrillic is not easily available. Official use of romanization by Bulgarian authorities is found, for instance, in identity documents and in road signage. Several different standards of transliteration exist, one of which was chosen and made mandatory for common use by the Bulgarian authorities in a law of 2009.
In its practice, the Antarctic Place-names Commission has been giving priority to the following Antarctic geographic areas and features:
The Commission only considers for possible naming features that are nameless, well identified and provided with detailed standardized descriptions.
The work of the Commission is supported by geographical information and mapping resulting from topographic surveys in Antarctica, such as the 1995/96 survey in Livingston Island, and the topographic survey Tangra 2004/05. Field work carried out during the latter survey has been noted by Discovery Channel, the Natural History Museum, the Royal Collection and the British Antarctic Survey as a timeline event in Antarctic exploration.
A geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data. GIS applications are tools that allow users to create interactive queries, analyze spatial information, edit data in maps, and present the results of all these operations. GIS sometimes refers to geographic information science (GIScience), the science underlying geographic concepts, applications, and systems.
Cartography is the study and practice of making maps. Combining science, aesthetics, and technique, cartography builds on the premise that reality can be modeled in ways that communicate spatial information effectively.
Topography is the study of the shape and features of land surfaces. The topography of an area could refer to the surface shapes and features themselves, or a description.
The Commission published the first Bulgarian topographic map of Livingston Island and Greenwich Island in 2005, and jointly with the Military Topographic Service of the Bulgarian Army, the first detailed topographic map of Smith Island in 2009.
The Antarctic Place-names Commission cooperates with other national authorities for Antarctic place names, and with the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR). Details of the Bulgarian Antarctic toponyms are published by the Commission's website, and also by the international Composite Gazetteer of Antarctica maintained by SCAR.
In order to promote Antarctic exploration and the presence of Bulgaria in Antarctica, the Commission encourages Bulgarian municipalities to give relevant Antarctic names to public places. Several squares and streets in Bulgarian settlements are named after Livingston Island, such as Livingston Island Square in Samuil and Kula; Livingston Island Street in Gotse Delchev, Yambol, Petrich, Sofia, Lovech and Vidin;and Antarctica Street in Dzhebel.
Boyana Glacier in Levski Ridge, Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands in Antarctica is situated southeast of Macy Glacier and west-southwest of Srebarna Glacier. It is bounded by Vazov Rock on the west, St. Naum Peak, Starosel Gate, Silistra Knoll and Kotel Gap on the north, and Christoff Cliff on the east. The glacier extends 3 km in east-west direction and 1.6 km in north-south direction, and flows southeastward into the Bransfield Strait between Vazov Point and Aytos Point.
Burgas Peninsula is a predominantly ice-covered peninsula forming the east extremity of Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica extending 10 km in the east-northeast direction towards Renier Point and 4.7 km wide. It is bounded by Bruix Cove, Moon Bay and Mugla Passage to the north, and Bransfield Strait to the south-southeast. The peninsula's interior is occupied by the Delchev Ridge of Tangra Mountains.
The Debelt Glacier on Varna Peninsula, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is situated southeast of Rose Valley Glacier and northeast of Panega Glacier. It drains the southeastern slopes of Vidin Heights and flows into Moon Bay between Edinburgh Hill and Helis Nunatak. The glacier extends three km in an east-west direction, and 1.5 km in north-south direction.
Kaliakra Glacier is a glacier in northeastern Livingston Island, Antarctica extending 3.8 nautical miles in east-west direction and 4.3 nautical miles in north-south direction, and situated southeast of Saedinenie Snowfield, southwest of Panega Glacier, north of Struma Glacier and upper Huron Glacier, and northeast of Perunika Glacier. It is bounded by Melnik Ridge and Bowles Ridge to the south, by Hemus Peak, Gurev Gap, Gleaner Heights, Elhovo Gap, Leslie Hill, Leslie Gap and Radnevo Peak to the west, and Miziya Peak and Samuel Peak to the north. The glacier drains eastwards into Moon Bay south of Perperek Knoll and north of Sindel Point.
Kaloyan Nunatak is a conspicuous nunatak in the Tangra Mountains. It is named after Czar Kaloyan of Bulgaria, 1197-1207 AD.
Melta Point is a rocky point on the coast of Hero Bay, Livingston Island, formed by an offshoot of Teres Ridge. Adjacent ice-free area 116 hectares. The point is named after the ancient Melta, ancestor of the present town of Lovech in Northern Bulgaria. This is one of the Bulgarian names bestowed on hitherto nameless geographical features by the Tangra 2004/05 Expedition.
Panega Glacier on Varna Peninsula, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is situated southeast of the northeastern portion of Saedinenie Snowfield, south of Rose Valley Glacier, southwest of Debelt Glacier and north of lower Kaliakra Glacier. It drains the southeast slopes of Vidin Heights and flows into Moon Bay between Helis Nunatak and Perperek Knoll. The glacier extends 2 nautical miles in the southeast-northwest direction, and 1.6 nautical miles in the southwest-northeast direction. It is named after Zlatna Panega River in northern Bulgaria.
Perunika Glacier is an 8 km long and 3 km wide (average) roughly crescent-shaped glacier in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica situated east of Pimpirev Glacier, south of Saedinenie Snowfield, southwest of Kaliakra Glacier, west of Huron Glacier, and north of Balkan Snowfield and the head of Huntress Glacier.
Rongel Reef, is a moraine reef in the Emona Anchorage in the eastern parts of Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The reef emerged during a glacier retreat in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.
Rozhen Peninsula extends 9 km in the southwest direction towards Barnard Point, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, and 8.8 km wide. It is bounded by False Bay and its segment Inept Cove to the west, Bransfield Strait to the southeast and Brunow Bay to the east. Its interior is occupied by the Friesland Ridge of Tangra Mountains.
Saedinenie Snowfield on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is situated southwest of Rose Valley Glacier, west of Panega Glacier, northwest of Kaliakra Glacier, north of lower Perunika Glacier and east-northeast of Tundzha Glacier. It is bounded by Teres Ridge to the west, the glacial divide between the Drake Passage and Bransfield Strait to the south, Gleaner Heights, Elhovo Gap and Leslie Hill to the southeast, and Leslie Gap and Vidin Heights to the east. The snowfield extends 4.7 km inland and 15.5 km in southwest-northeast direction, and drains into Hero Bay between Melta Point and Slab Point.
Sea Lion Glacier is the site of an isolated 350 metres (1,150 ft) long glacier on Hurd Peninsula, eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It is located southwest of Hesperides Hill and northwest of Atlantic Club Ridge, separated from the latter by Sea Lion Tarn, and terminating on the South Bay coast.
Struma Glacier is a glacier in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica situated south of lower Kaliakra Glacier and north of Huron Glacier. Bounded by Melnik Ridge to the north, Yankov Gap to the west and Bowles Ridge to the south, it is 4.8 km long and 1.5 km wide, and flows eastwards into Moon Bay south of Sindel Point and north of Elemag Point.
Varna Peninsula is a roughly rectangular predominantly ice-covered peninsula forming the northeast extremity of Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It is bounded by Hero Bay to the northwest, by Moon Bay to the southeast, and by McFarlane Strait to the northeast.
Vergilov Rocks are a group of rocks off Bulgarian Beach on Hurd Peninsula in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, consisting of one main rock and two adjacent smaller ones submerging at high water.
Vidin Heights are predominantly ice-covered heights rising to 604 m on Varna Peninsula, eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The feature is approximately 8 km long from the north end of Leslie Gap east-northeastwards to Inott Point and 9.6 km north-northeastwards to Sayer Nunatak. The summit, Miziya Peak, is located 9.25 km north by east of Mount Bowles, 4.24 km north-northeast of Leslie Hill, 9.47 km south of Williams Point and 7.52 km west of Edinburgh Hill. The heights feature also Samuel Peak 1.9 km east-southeast of Miziya Peak, and Sharp Peak at their east-northeast extremity. The heights surmount Saedinenie Snowfield to the northwest, Rose Valley Glacier to the northeast, Debelt Glacier and Panega Glacier to the southeast, and Kaliakra Glacier to the south.
Desolation Island is one of the minor islands in the South Shetlands archipelago, Antarctica situated at the entrance to Hero Bay, Livingston Island. The island is V-shaped with its northern coast indented by Kozma Cove. Surface area 3.12 square kilometres (1.20 sq mi).
Maglizh Rocks are a group of rocks off the northwest coast of Smith Island, South Shetland Islands. The two adjacent principal rocks extending 460 m (503 yd) in east-west direction and 140 m (153 yd) wide are situated 300 m (328 yd) north of Lista Point, with the third major one, 300 by 100 m, situated 320 m (350 yd) northwest of them. Combined surface area 10.6 hectares. Bulgarian early mapping in 2009. Named after the town of Maglizh in southern Bulgaria.
Zavala Island is an ice-free island in the Dunbar group off the northwest coast of Varna Peninsula on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It is extending 700 by 250 m, with surface area 14 hectares. The area was visited by early 19th century sealers.
Zverino Island is the largest and westernmost island in the Meade group lying in the north entrance to McFarlane Strait in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It is extending 1.2 km by 700 m, with surface area of 48 hectares, and is snow-free in summer.