Charge modulation Spectroscopy is an electro-optical spectroscopy technique tool.It is used to study the charge carrier behavior of Organic field-effect transistor. It measures the charge introduced optical transmission variation by directly probing the accumulation charge at the burning interface of semiconductor and dielectric layer where the conduction channel forms.
Unlike ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy which measures absorbance, charge modulation spectroscopy measures the charge introduced optical transmission variation. In other words, it reveals the new features in optical transmission introduced by charges. In this setup, there are mainly four components: lamp, monochromator, photodetector and lock-in amplifier. Lamp and monochromator are used for generating and selecting the wavelength. The selected wavelength passes through the transistor, and the transmitted light is recorded by the Photodiode. When the signal to noise ratio is very low, the signal can be modulated and recovered with a Lock-in amplifier.
In the experiment, a direct current plus an alternating current bias are applied to the organic field-effect transistor. Charge carries accumulate at the interface between the dielectric and the semiconductor (usually a few nanometers Bleaching and Charge absorption signal) is then collected though the photodetector and lock-in amplifier. The charge modulation frequency is given to Lock-in amplifier as the reference.). With the appearance of the accumulation charge, the intensity of the transmitted light changes. The variation of the light intensity (§
There are four typically Organic field-effect transistor architectures:Top-gate, bottom-contacts; bottom-gate, top-contacts; bottom-gate, bottom-contacts; top-gate, top-contact.
In order to create the accumulation charge layer, a positive/negative direct current voltage is applied to the gate of the organic field-effect transistor (positive for the P type transistor, negative for the N type transistor).In order to modulate the charge, an AC voltage is given between the gate and source. It is important to notice that only mobile charge can follow the modulation and that the modulation frequency given to lock-in amplifier has to be synchronous.
The charge modulation spectroscopy signal can be defined as the differential transmission divided by the total transmission . By modulating the mobile carriers, an increase transmission and decrease transmission features could be both observed. The former relates to the bleaching and the latter to the charge absorption and electically induced absorption (electro-absorption). The charge modulation spectroscopy spectra is an overlap of charge-induced and electro-absorption features. In transistors, the electro-absorption is more significant during the high voltage drop. There are several ways to identify the electro-absorption contribution, such as get the second harmonic , or probe it at the depletion region.
When the accumulation charge carrier removes the ground state of the neutral polymer, there is more transmission in the ground state. This is called bleaching . With the excess hole or electrons at the polymer, there will be new transitions at low energy levels, therefore the transmission intensity is reduced , this is related to charge absorption.
The electro-absorption is a type of Stark effect in the neutral polymer,it is predominant at the electrode edge since there is a strong voltage drop. Electro-absorption can be observed from the second harmonic charge modulation spectroscopy spectra.
Charge modulation microscopy is a new technology which combines the confocal microscopy with charge modulation spectroscopy.Unlike the charge modulation spectroscopy which is focused on the whole transistor, the charge modulation microscopy give us the local spectra and map. Thanks for this technology, the channel spectra and electrode spectra can be obtained individually. A more local dimension of charge modulation spectra (around submicrometer) can be observed without a significant Electro-absorption feature. Of course, this depends on the resolution of the optical microscopy.
The high resolution of charge modulation microscopy allows mapping of the charge carrier distribution at the active channel of the organic field-effect transistor.In other words, a functional carrier morphology can be observed. It is well known that the local carrier density can be related to the polymer microstructure. Based on Density functional theory calculations, a polarized charge modulation microscopy can selectively map the charge transport associated with a relative direction of the transition dipole moment. The local direction can be correlated to the orientational order of polymer domains. More ordered domains show a high carrier mobility of the organic field-effect transistor device.
Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy or ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry refers to absorption spectroscopy or reflectance spectroscopy in part of the ultraviolet and the full, adjacent visible spectral regions. This means it uses light in the visible and adjacent ranges. The absorption or reflectance in the visible range directly affects the perceived color of the chemicals involved. In this region of the electromagnetic spectrum, atoms and molecules undergo electronic transitions. Absorption spectroscopy is complementary to fluorescence spectroscopy, in that fluorescence deals with transitions from the excited state to the ground state, while absorption measures transitions from the ground state to the excited state.
Photonics is the physical science of light (photon) generation, detection, and manipulation through emission, transmission, modulation, signal processing, switching, amplification, and sensing. Though covering all light's technical applications over the whole spectrum, most photonic applications are in the range of visible and near-infrared light. The term photonics developed as an outgrowth of the first practical semiconductor light emitters invented in the early 1960s and optical fibers developed in the 1970s.
Time of flight (ToF) is the measurement of the time taken by an object, particle or wave to travel a distance through a medium. This information can then be used to establish a time standard, as a way to measure velocity or path length, or as a way to learn about the particle or medium's properties. The traveling object may be detected directly or indirectly.
A polaron is a quasiparticle used in condensed matter physics to understand the interactions between electrons and atoms in a solid material. The polaron concept was first proposed by Lev Landau in 1933 to describe an electron moving in a dielectric crystal where the atoms move from their equilibrium positions to effectively screen the charge of an electron, known as a phonon cloud. This lowers the electron mobility and increases the electron's effective mass.
Conductive polymers or, more precisely, intrinsically conducting polymers (ICPs) are organic polymers that conduct electricity. Such compounds may have metallic conductivity or can be semiconductors. The biggest advantage of conductive polymers is their processability, mainly by dispersion. Conductive polymers are generally not thermoplastics, i.e., they are not thermoformable. But, like insulating polymers, they are organic materials. They can offer high electrical conductivity but do not show similar mechanical properties to other commercially available polymers. The electrical properties can be fine-tuned using the methods of organic synthesis and by advanced dispersion techniques.
In solid-state physics, the electron mobility characterises how quickly an electron can move through a metal or semiconductor, when pulled by an electric field. There is an analogous quantity for holes, called hole mobility. The term carrier mobility refers in general to both electron and hole mobility.
A high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT), also known as heterostructure FET (HFET) or modulation-doped FET (MODFET), is a field-effect transistor incorporating a junction between two materials with different band gaps as the channel instead of a doped region. A commonly used material combination is GaAs with AlGaAs, though there is wide variation, dependent on the application of the device. Devices incorporating more indium generally show better high-frequency performance, while in recent years, gallium nitride HEMTs have attracted attention due to their high-power performance. Like other FETs, HEMTs are used in integrated circuits as digital on-off switches. FETs can also be used as amplifiers for large amounts of current using a small voltage as a control signal. Both of these uses are made possible by the FET’s unique current–voltage characteristics. HEMT transistors are able to operate at higher frequencies than ordinary transistors, up to millimeter wave frequencies, and are used in high-frequency products such as cell phones, satellite television receivers, voltage converters, and radar equipment. They are widely used in satellite receivers, in low power amplifiers and in the defense industry.
Organic semiconductors are solids whose building blocks are pi-bonded molecules or polymers made up by carbon and hydrogen atoms and – at times – heteroatoms such as nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen. They exist in form of molecular crystals or amorphous thin films. In general, they are electrical insulators, but become semiconducting when charges are either injected from appropriate electrodes, upon doping or by photoexcitation.
An organic field-effect transistor (OFET) is a field-effect transistor using an organic semiconductor in its channel. OFETs can be prepared either by vacuum evaporation of small molecules, by solution-casting of polymers or small molecules, or by mechanical transfer of a peeled single-crystalline organic layer onto a substrate. These devices have been developed to realize low-cost, large-area electronic products and biodegradable electronics. OFETs have been fabricated with various device geometries. The most commonly used device geometry is bottom gate with top drain and source electrodes, because this geometry is similar to the thin-film silicon transistor (TFT) using thermally grown SiO2 as gate dielectric. Organic polymers, such as poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA), can also be used as dielectric.
Two-photon absorption (TPA) is the absorption of two photons of identical or different frequencies in order to excite a molecule from one state to a higher energy, most commonly an excited electronic state. The energy difference between the involved lower and upper states of the molecule is equal to the sum of the photon energies of the two photons absorbed. Two-photon absorption is a third-order process, typically several orders of magnitude weaker than linear absorption at low light intensities. It differs from linear absorption in that the optical transition rate due to TPA depends on the square of the light intensity, thus it is a nonlinear optical process, and can dominate over linear absorption at high intensities.
An electro-absorption modulator (EAM) is a semiconductor device which can be used for modulating the intensity of a laser beam via an electric voltage. Its principle of operation is based on the Franz-Keldysh effect, i.e., a change in the absorption spectrum caused by an applied electric field, which changes the bandgap energy but usually does not involve the excitation of carriers by the electric field.
An optical modulator is an optical device which is used to modulate a beam of light with a perturbation device. It is a kind of transmitter to convert information to optical binary signal through optical fiber or transmission medium of optical frequency in fiber optic communication. There are several methods to manipulate this device depending on the parameter of a light beam like amplitude modulator (majority), phase modulator, polarization modulator etc. The easiest way to obtain modulation is modulation of intensity of a light by the current driving the light source. This sort of modulation is called direct modulation, as opposed to the external modulation performed by a light modulator. For this reason, light modulators are called external light modulators. According to manipulation of the properties of material modulators are divided into two groups, absorptive modulators and refractive modulators. Absorption coefficient can be manipulated by Franz-Keldysh effect, Quantum-Confined Stark Effect, excitonic absorption, or changes of free carrier concentration. Usually, if several such effects appear together, the modulator is called electro-absorptive modulator. Refractive modulators most often make use of electro-optic effect, other modulators are made with acousto-optic effect, magneto-optic effect such as Faraday and Cotton-Mouton effects. The other case of modulators is spatial light modulator (SLM) which is modified two dimensional distribution of amplitude & phase of an optical wave.
The purpose of this article is to summarize the methods used to experimentally characterize a semiconductor material or device. Some examples of semiconductor quantities that could be characterized include depletion width, carrier concentration, optical generation and recombination rate, carrier lifetimes, defect concentration, trap states, etc.
Organic photorefractive materials are materials that exhibit a temporary change in refractive index when exposed to light. The changing refractive index causes light to change speed throughout the material and produce light and dark regions in the crystal. The buildup can be controlled to produce holographic images for use in biomedical scans and optical computing. The ease with which the chemical composition can be changed in organic materials makes the photorefractive effect more controllable.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to electronics:
Semiconductor lasers or laser diodes play an important part in our everyday lives by providing cheap and compact-size lasers. They consist of complex multi-layer structures requiring nanometer scale accuracy and an elaborate design. Their theoretical description is important not only from a fundamental point of view, but also in order to generate new and improved designs. It is common to all systems that the laser is an inverted carrier density system. The carrier inversion results in an electromagnetic polarization which drives an electric field . In most cases, the electric field is confined in a resonator, the properties of which are also important factors for laser performance.
Henning Sirringhaus is Hitachi Professor of Electron Device Physics, Head of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Group and a Fellow of Churchill College at the University of Cambridge.
Photo-reflectance is an optical technique for investigating the material and electronic properties of thin films. Photo-reflectance measures the change in reflectivity of a sample in response to the application of an amplitude modulated light beam. In general, a photo-reflectometer consists of an intensity modulated "pump" light beam used to modulate the reflectivity of the sample, a second "probe" light beam used to measure the reflectance of the sample, an optical system for directing the pump and probe beams to the sample, and for directing the reflected probe light onto a photodetector, and a signal processor to record the differential reflectance. The pump light is typically modulated at a known frequency so that a lock-in amplifier may be used to suppress unwanted noise, resulting in the ability to detect reflectance changes at the ppm level.
Nano-FTIR is a scanning probe technique that can be considered as a combination of two techniques: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM). As s-SNOM, nano-FTIR is based on atomic-force microscopy (AFM), where a sharp tip is illuminated by an external light source and the tip-scattered light is detected as a function of tip position. A typical nano-FTIR setup thus consists of an atomic force microscope, a broadband infrared light source used for tip illumination, and a Michelson interferometer acting as Fourier transform spectrometer. In nano-FTIR, the sample stage is placed in one of the interferometer arms, which allows for recording both amplitude and phase of the detected light. Scanning the tip allows for performing hyperspectral imaging with nanoscale spatial resolution determined by the tip apex size. The use of broadband infrared sources enables the acquisition of continuous spectra, which is a distinctive feature of nano-FTIR compared to s-SNOM. Nano-FTIR is capable of performing infrared (IR) spectroscopy of materials in ultrasmall quantities and with nanoscale spatial resolution. The detection of a single molecular complex and the sensitivity to a single monolayer has been shown. Recording infrared spectra as a function of position can be used for nanoscale mapping of the sample chemical composition, performing a local ultrafast IR spectroscopy and analyzing the nanoscale intermolecular coupling, among others. A spatial resolution of 10 nm to 20 nm is routinely achieved
Iain McCulloch, born in Scotland, is Professor of Polymer Materials at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and has a chair in Polymer Materials in the Department of Chemistry at Imperial College London . He is affiliated with the Chemical Science Graduate Program in the Division of Physical Science and Engineering at KAUST where he is also the Director of the KAUST Solar Center.