Photodetector

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A photodetector salvaged from a CD-ROM drive. The photodetector contains three photodiodes, visible in the photo (in center). CD-ROM Photodetector.jpg
A photodetector salvaged from a CD-ROM drive. The photodetector contains three photodiodes, visible in the photo (in center).

Photodetectors, also called photosensors, are sensors of light or other electromagnetic radiation. [1] A photo detector has a p–n junction that converts light photons into current. The absorbed photons make electron–hole pairs in the depletion region. Photodiodes and photo transistors are a few examples of photo detectors. Solar cells convert some of the light energy absorbed into electrical energy.

Contents

Types

A commercial amplified photodetector for use in optics research USB-photodetector.png
A commercial amplified photodetector for use in optics research

Photodetectors may be classified by their mechanism for detection: [2] [ unreliable source? ] [3] [4]

Photodetectors may be used in different configurations. Single sensors may detect overall light levels. A 1-D array of photodetectors, as in a spectrophotometer or a Line scanner, may be used to measure the distribution of light along a line. A 2-D array of photodetectors may be used as an image sensor to form images from the pattern of light before it.

A photodetector or array is typically covered by an illumination window, sometimes having an anti-reflective coating.

Properties

There are a number of performance metrics, also called figures of merit, by which photodetectors are characterized and compared [2] [3]

Devices

Grouped by mechanism, photodetectors include the following devices:

Photoemission or photoelectric

Semiconductor

Photovoltaic

Thermal

Photochemical

Polarization

Graphene/silicon photodetectors

A graphene/n-type silicon heterojunction has been demonstrated to exhibit strong rectifying behavior and high photoresponsivity. Graphene is coupled with silicon quantum dots (Si QDs) on top of bulk Si to form a hybrid photodetector. Si QDs cause an increase of the built-in potential of the graphene/Si Schottky junction while reducing the optical reflection of the photodetector. Both the electrical and optical contributions of Si QDs enable a superior performance of the photodetector. [16]

Frequency range

In 2014 a technique for extending semiconductor-based photodetector's frequency range to longer, lower-energy wavelengths. Adding a light source to the device effectively "primed" the detector so that in the presence of long wavelengths, it fired on wavelengths that otherwise lacked the energy to do so. [17]

See also

References

  1. Haugan, H. J.; Elhamri, S.; Szmulowicz, F.; Ullrich, B.; Brown, G. J.; Mitchel, W. C. (2008). "Study of residual background carriers in midinfrared InAs/GaSb superlattices for uncooled detector operation". Applied Physics Letters. 92 (7): 071102. Bibcode:2008ApPhL..92g1102H. doi:10.1063/1.2884264.
  2. 1 2 Donati, S. "Photodetectors" (PDF). unipv.it. Prentice Hall. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
  3. 1 2 Yotter, R.A.; Wilson, D.M. (June 2003). "A review of photodetectors for sensing light-emitting reporters in biological systems". IEEE Sensors Journal. 3 (3): 288–303. Bibcode:2003ISenJ...3..288Y. doi:10.1109/JSEN.2003.814651.
  4. Stöckmann, F. (May 1975). "Photodetectors, their performance and their limitations". Applied Physics. 7 (1): 1–5. Bibcode:1975ApPhy...7....1S. doi:10.1007/BF00900511.
  5. A. Grinberg, Anatoly; Luryi, Serge (1 July 1988). "Theory of the photon-drag effect in a two-dimensional electron gas". Physical Review B. 38 (1): 87–96. Bibcode:1988PhRvB..38...87G. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.38.87.
  6. Bishop, P.; Gibson, A.; Kimmitt, M. (October 1973). "The performance of photon-drag detectors at high laser intensities". IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics. 9 (10): 1007–1011. Bibcode:1973IJQE....9.1007B. doi:10.1109/JQE.1973.1077407.
  7. Hu, Yue (1 October 2014). "Modeling sources of nonlinearity in a simple pin photodetector". Journal of Lightwave Technology. 32 (20): 3710–3720. Bibcode:2014JLwT...32.3710H. doi:10.1109/JLT.2014.2315740.
  8. "Photo Detector Circuit". oscience.info.
  9. Paschotta, Dr. Rüdiger. "Encyclopedia of Laser Physics and Technology - photodetectors, photodiodes, phototransistors, pyroelectric photodetectors, array, powermeter, noise". www.rp-photonics.com. Retrieved 2016-05-31.
  10. "PDA10A(-EC) Si Amplified Fixed Gain Detector User Manual" (PDF). Thorlabs. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  11. "DPD80 760nm Datasheet". Resolved Instruments. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  12. Rizzi, M.; D`Aloia, M.; Castagnolo, B. "Semiconductor Detectors and Principles of Radiation-matter Interaction". Journal of Applied Sciences. 10 (23): 3141–3155. Bibcode:2010JApSc..10.3141R. doi:10.3923/jas.2010.3141.3155.
  13. "Silicon Drift Detectors" (PDF). tools.thermofisher.com. Thermo Scientific.
  14. Enss, Christian (Editor) (2005). Cryogenic Particle Detection. Springer, Topics in applied physics 99. ISBN   3-540-20113-0.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  15. Yuan, Hongtao; Liu, Xiaoge; Afshinmanesh, Farzaneh; Li, Wei; Xu, Gang; Sun, Jie; Lian, Biao; Curto, Alberto G.; Ye, Guojun; Hikita, Yasuyuki; Shen, Zhixun; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Chen, Xianhui; Brongersma, Mark; Hwang, Harold Y.; Cui, Yi (1 June 2015). "Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p–n junction". Nature Nanotechnology. 10 (8): 707–713. Bibcode:2015NatNa..10..707Y. doi:10.1038/nnano.2015.112.
  16. Yu, Ting; Wang, Feng; Xu, Yang; Ma, Lingling; Pi, Xiaodong; Yang, Deren (2016). "Graphene Coupled with Silicon Quantum Dots for High-Performance Bulk-Silicon-Based Schottky-Junction Photodetectors". Advanced Materials. doi:10.1002/adma.201506140.
  17. Claycombe, Ann (2014-04-14). "Research finds "tunable" semiconductors will allow better detectors, solar cells". Rdmag.com. Retrieved 2014-08-24.