Negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistor, bead type, insulated wires
|Working principle||Electric resistance|
A thermistor is a type of resistor whose resistance is dependent on temperature, more so than in standard resistors. The word is a portmanteau of thermal and resistor . Thermistors are widely used as inrush current limiters, temperature sensors (negative temperature coefficient or NTC type typically), self-resetting overcurrent protectors, and self-regulating heating elements (positive temperature coefficient or PTC type typically).
A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. In electronic circuits, resistors are used to reduce current flow, adjust signal levels, to divide voltages, bias active elements, and terminate transmission lines, among other uses. High-power resistors that can dissipate many watts of electrical power as heat, may be used as part of motor controls, in power distribution systems, or as test loads for generators. Fixed resistors have resistances that only change slightly with temperature, time or operating voltage. Variable resistors can be used to adjust circuit elements, or as sensing devices for heat, light, humidity, force, or chemical activity.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold. It is measured with a thermometer calibrated in one or more temperature scales. The most commonly used scales are the Celsius scale, Fahrenheit scale, and Kelvin scale. The kelvin is the unit of temperature in the International System of Units (SI), in which temperature is one of the seven fundamental base quantities. The Kelvin scale is widely used in science and technology.
A portmanteau or portmanteau word is a linguistic blend of words, in which parts of multiple words or their phones (sounds) are combined into a new word, as in smog, coined by blending smoke and fog, or motel, from motor and hotel. In linguistics, a portmanteau is defined as a single morph that represents two or more morphemes.
Thermistors are of two opposite fundamental types:
Thermistors are generally produced using powdered metal oxides. °C or ±0.2 °C from 0 °C to 70 °C with excellent long-term stability. NTC thermistor elements come in many styles such as axial-leaded glass-encapsulated (DO-35, DO-34 and DO-41 diodes), glass-coated chips, epoxy-coated with bare or insulated lead wire and surface-mount, as well as rods and discs. The typical operating temperature range of a thermistor is −55 °C to +150 °C, though some glass-body thermistors have a maximal operating temperature of +300 °C.With vastly improved formulas and techniques over the past 20 years, NTC thermistors can now achieve precision accuracies over wide temperature ranges such as such as ±0.1
Thermistors differ from resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) in that the material used in a thermistor is generally a ceramic or polymer, while RTDs use pure metals. The temperature response is also different; RTDs are useful over larger temperature ranges, while thermistors typically achieve a greater precision within a limited temperature range, typically −90 °C to 130 °C.
Resistance thermometers, also called resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), are sensors used to measure temperature. Many RTD elements consist of a length of fine wire wrapped around a ceramic or glass core but other constructions are also used. The RTD wire is a pure material, typically platinum, nickel, or copper. The material has an accurate resistance/temperature relationship which is used to provide an indication of temperature. As RTD elements are fragile, they are often housed in protective probes.
Assuming, as a first-order approximation, that the relationship between resistance and temperature is linear, then
Thermistors can be classified into two types, depending on the sign of . If is positive, the resistance increases with increasing temperature, and the device is called a positive temperature coefficient (PTC) thermistor, or posistor. If is negative, the resistance decreases with increasing temperature, and the device is called a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistor. Resistors that are not thermistors are designed to have a as close to 0 as possible, so that their resistance remains nearly constant over a wide temperature range.
Instead of the temperature coefficient k, sometimes the temperature coefficient of resistance ("alpha sub T") is used. It is defined as
This coefficient should not be confused with the parameter below.
In practice, the linear approximation (above) works only over a small temperature range. For accurate temperature measurements, the resistance–temperature curve of the device must be described in more detail. The Steinhart–Hart equation is a widely used third-order approximation:
where a, b and c are called the Steinhart–Hart parameters and must be specified for each device. T is the absolute temperature, and R is the resistance. To give resistance as a function of temperature, the above can be rearranged into
The error in the Steinhart–Hart equation is generally less than 0.02 °C in the measurement of temperature over a 200 °C range. As an example, typical values for a thermistor with a resistance of 3 kΩ at room temperature (25 °C = 298.15 K) are:
NTC thermistors can also be characterised with the B (or β) parameter equation, which is essentially the Steinhart–Hart equation with , and ,
where the temperatures are in kelvins, and R0 is the resistance at temperature T0 (25 °C = 298.15 K). Solving for R yields
This can be solved for the temperature:
The B-parameter equation can also be written as . This can be used to convert the function of resistance vs. temperature of a thermistor into a linear function of vs. . The average slope of this function will then yield an estimate of the value of the B parameter.
Many NTC thermistors are made from a pressed disc, rod, plate, bead or cast chip of semiconducting material such as sintered metal oxides. They work because raising the temperature of a semiconductor increases the number of active charge carriersit promotes them into the conduction band . The more charge carriers that are available, the more current a material can conduct. In certain materials like ferric oxide (Fe2O3) with titanium (Ti) doping an n-type semiconductor is formed and the charge carriers are electrons. In materials such as nickel oxide (NiO) with lithium (Li) doping a p-type semiconductor is created, where holes are the charge carriers.
This is described in the formula
Over large changes in temperature, calibration is necessary. Over small changes in temperature, if the right semiconductor is used, the resistance of the material is linearly proportional to the temperature. There are many different semiconducting thermistors with a range from about 0.01 kelvin to 2,000 kelvins (−273.14 °C to 1,700 °C).[ citation needed ]
The IEC standard symbol for a NTC thermistor includes a "−t°" under the rectangle.
Most PTC thermistors are made from doped polycrystalline ceramic (containing barium titanate (BaTiO3) and other compounds) which have the property that their resistance rises suddenly at a certain critical temperature. Barium titanate is ferroelectric and its dielectric constant varies with temperature. Below the Curie point temperature, the high dielectric constant prevents the formation of potential barriers between the crystal grains, leading to a low resistance. In this region the device has a small negative temperature coefficient. At the Curie point temperature, the dielectric constant drops sufficiently to allow the formation of potential barriers at the grain boundaries, and the resistance increases sharply with temperature. At even higher temperatures, the material reverts to NTC behaviour.
Another type of thermistor is a silistor, a thermally sensitive silicon resistor. Silistors employ silicon as the semiconductive component material. Unlike ceramic PTC thermistors, silistors have an almost linear resistance-temperature characteristic.
Barium titanate thermistors can be used as self-controlled heaters; for a given voltage, the ceramic will heat to a certain temperature, but the power used will depend on the heat loss from the ceramic.
The dynamics of PTC thermistors being powered also is extremely useful. When first connected to a voltage source, a large current corresponding to the low, cold, resistance flows, but as the thermistor self-heats, the current is reduced until a limiting current (and corresponding peak device temperature) is reached. The current-limiting effect can replace fuses. In the degaussing circuits of many CRT monitors and televisions an appropriately chosen thermistor is connected in series with the degaussing coil. This results in a smooth current decrease for an improved degaussing effect. Some of these degaussing circuits have auxiliary heating elements to heat the thermistor (and reduce the resulting current) further.
Another type of PTC thermistor is the polymer PTC, which is sold under brand names such as "Polyswitch" "Semifuse", and "Multifuse". This consists of plastic with carbon grains embedded in it. When the plastic is cool, the carbon grains are all in contact with each other, forming a conductive path through the device. When the plastic heats up, it expands, forcing the carbon grains apart, and causing the resistance of the device to rise, which then causes increased heating and rapid resistance increase. Like the BaTiO3 thermistor, this device has a highly nonlinear resistance/temperature response useful for thermal or circuit control, not for temperature measurement. Besides circuit elements used to limit current, self-limiting heaters can be made in the form of wires or strips, useful for heat tracing. PTC thermistors 'latch' into a hot / high resistance state: once hot, they stay in that high resistance state, until cooled. The effect can be used as a primitive latch/memory circuit, the effect being enhanced by using two PTC thermistors in series, with one thermistor cool, and the other thermistor hot.
The IEC standard symbol for a PTC thermistor includes a "+t°" under the rectangle.
When a current flows through a thermistor, it generates heat, which raises the temperature of the thermistor above that of its environment. If the thermistor is being used to measure the temperature of the environment, this electrical heating may introduce a significant error if a correction is not made. Alternatively, this effect itself can be exploited. It can, for example, make a sensitive air-flow device employed in a sailplane rate-of-climb instrument, the electronic variometer, or serve as a timer for a relay as was formerly done in telephone exchanges.
The electrical power input to the thermistor is just
where I is current, and V is the voltage drop across the thermistor. This power is converted to heat, and this heat energy is transferred to the surrounding environment. The rate of transfer is well described by Newton's law of cooling:
where T(R) is the temperature of the thermistor as a function of its resistance R, is the temperature of the surroundings, and K is the dissipation constant, usually expressed in units of milliwatts per degree Celsius. At equilibrium, the two rates must be equal:
The current and voltage across the thermistor depend on the particular circuit configuration. As a simple example, if the voltage across the thermistor is held fixed, then by Ohm's law we have , and the equilibrium equation can be solved for the ambient temperature as a function of the measured resistance of the thermistor:
The dissipation constant is a measure of the thermal connection of the thermistor to its surroundings. It is generally given for the thermistor in still air and in well-stirred oil. Typical values for a small glass-bead thermistor are 1.5 mW/°C in still air and 6.0 mW/°C in stirred oil. If the temperature of the environment is known beforehand, then a thermistor may be used to measure the value of the dissipation constant. For example, the thermistor may be used as a flow-rate sensor, since the dissipation constant increases with the rate of flow of a fluid past the thermistor.
The power dissipated in a thermistor is typically maintained at a very low level to ensure insignificant temperature measurement error due to self-heating. However, some thermistor applications depend upon significant "self-heating" to raise the body temperature of the thermistor well above the ambient temperature, so the sensor then detects even subtle changes in the thermal conductivity of the environment. Some of these applications include liquid-level detection, liquid-flow measurement and air-flow measurement.
The first NTC thermistor was discovered in 1833 by Michael Faraday, who reported on the semiconducting behavior of silver sulfide. Faraday noticed that the resistance of silver sulfide decreased dramatically as temperature increased. (This was also the first documented observation of a semiconducting material.)
Because early thermistors were difficult to produce and applications for the technology were limited, commercial production of thermistors did not begin until the 1930s.A commercially viable thermistor was invented by Samuel Ruben in 1930.
A thermocouple is an electrical device consisting of two dissimilar electrical conductors forming electrical junctions at differing temperatures. A thermocouple produces a temperature-dependent voltage as a result of the thermoelectric effect, and this voltage can be interpreted to measure temperature. Thermocouples are a widely used type of temperature sensor.
The electrical resistance of an object is a measure of its opposition to the flow of electric current. The inverse quantity is electrical conductance, and is the ease with which an electric current passes. Electrical resistance shares some conceptual parallels with the notion of mechanical friction. The SI unit of electrical resistance is the ohm (Ω), while electrical conductance is measured in siemens (S).
Thermal conduction is the transfer of heat [internal energy] by microscopic collisions of particles and movement of electrons within an organ. The microscopically colliding particles, that include molecules, atoms and electrons, transfer disorganized microscopic kinetically and potential energy, jointly known as internal energy. Conduction takes place in all phases of including solids, liquids, gases and waves. The rate at which energy is conducted as heat between two bodies is a function of the temperature difference [temperature gradient] between the two bodies and the properties of the conductive through which the heat is transferred.
The silicon bandgap temperature sensor is an extremely common form of temperature sensor (thermometer) used in electronic equipment. Its main advantage is that it can be included in a silicon integrated circuit at very low cost. The principle of the sensor is that the forward voltage of a silicon diode, which may be the base-emitter junction of a bipolar junction transistor (BJT), is temperature-dependent, according to the following equation:
The lumped element model simplifies the description of the behaviour of spatially distributed physical systems into a topology consisting of discrete entities that approximate the behaviour of the distributed system under certain assumptions. It is useful in electrical systems, mechanical multibody systems, heat transfer, acoustics, etc.
In electronics, a voltage divider is a passive linear circuit that produces an output voltage (Vout) that is a fraction of its input voltage (Vin). Voltage division is the result of distributing the input voltage among the components of the divider. A simple example of a voltage divider is two resistors connected in series, with the input voltage applied across the resistor pair and the output voltage emerging from the connection between them.
A temperature coefficient describes the relative change of a physical property that is associated with a given change in temperature. For a property R that changes by dR when the temperature changes by dT, the temperature coefficient α is defined by the following equation:
Inrush current, input surge current, or switch-on surge is the maximal instantaneous input current drawn by an electrical device when first turned on. Alternating-current electric motors and transformers may draw several times their normal full-load current when first energized, for a few cycles of the input waveform. Power converters also often have inrush currents much higher than their steady-state currents, due to the charging current of the input capacitance. The selection of over-current-protection devices such as fuses and circuit breakers is made more complicated when high inrush currents must be tolerated. The over-current protection must react quickly to overload or short-circuit faults but must not interrupt the circuit when the inrush current flows.
A Widlar current source is a modification of the basic two-transistor current mirror that incorporates an emitter degeneration resistor for only the output transistor, enabling the current source to generate low currents using only moderate resistor values.
The Steinhart–Hart equation is a model of the resistance of a semiconductor at different temperatures. The equation is
The piezoresistive effect is a change in the electrical resistivity of a semiconductor or metal when mechanical strain is applied. In contrast to the piezoelectric effect, the piezoresistive effect causes a change only in electrical resistance, not in electric potential.
In electronics, diode modelling refers to the mathematical models used to approximate the actual behaviour of real diodes to enable calculations and circuit analysis. A diode's I-V curve is nonlinear. This nonlinearity complicates calculations in circuits involving diodes so simpler models are often required.
An inrush current limiter is a component used to limit inrush current to avoid gradual damage to components and avoid blowing fuses or tripping circuit breakers. Negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistors and fixed resistors are often used to limit inrush current. NTC thermistors can be used as inrush-current limiting devices in power supply circuits when added in series with the circuit being protected. They present a higher resistance initially, which prevents large currents from flowing at turn-on. As current continues to flow, NTC thermistors heat up, allowing higher current flow during normal operation. NTC thermistors are usually much larger than measurement type thermistors, and are purposely designed for power applications.
Heat flux or thermal flux, sometimes also referred to as heat flux density or heat flow rate intensity is a flow of energy per unit of area per unit of time. In SI its units are watts per square metre (W⋅m−2). It has both a direction and a magnitude, and so it is a vector quantity. To define the heat flux at a certain point in space, one takes the limiting case where the size of the surface becomes infinitesimally small.
A heat flux sensor is a transducer that generates an electrical signal proportional to the total heat rate applied to the surface of the sensor. The measured heat rate is divided by the surface area of the sensor to determine the heat flux.
There are a number of possible ways to measure thermal conductivity, each of them suitable for a limited range of materials, depending on the thermal properties and the medium temperature. Two classes of methods exist to measure the thermal conductivity of a sample: steady-state and non-steady-state methods.
Sensistor is a Resistor whose resistance changes with temperature.
Thermal resistance is a heat property and a measurement of a temperature difference by which an object or material resists a heat flow. Thermal resistance is the reciprocal of thermal conductance.
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