Step recovery diode

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Signal of a SRD frequency comb generator (HP 33003A) Srd hp33003 EN.png
Signal of a SRD frequency comb generator (HP 33003A)
Circuit Symbol SDR Symbol.svg
Circuit Symbol

In electronics, a step recovery diode (SRD) is a semiconductor junction diode having the ability to generate extremely short pulses. It is also called snap-off diode or charge-storage diode or memory varactor , and has a variety of uses in microwave electronics as pulse generator or parametric amplifier.

Electronics physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter

Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. The identification of the electron in 1897, along with the invention of the vacuum tube, which could amplify and rectify small electrical signals, inaugurated the field of electronics and the electron age.

Microwave form of electromagnetic radiation

Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from about one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between 300 MHz (1 m) and 300 GHz (1 mm). Different sources define different frequency ranges as microwaves; the above broad definition includes both UHF and EHF bands. A more common definition in radio engineering is the range between 1 and 100 GHz. In all cases, microwaves include the entire SHF band at minimum. Frequencies in the microwave range are often referred to by their IEEE radar band designations: S, C, X, Ku, K, or Ka band, or by similar NATO or EU designations.

Pulse generator

A pulse generator is either an electronic circuit or a piece of electronic test equipment used to generate rectangular pulses. Pulse generators are used primarily for working with digital circuits, related function generators are used primarily for analog circuits.

Contents

When diodes switch from forward conduction to reverse cut-off, a reverse current flows briefly as stored charge is removed. It is the abruptness with which this reverse current ceases which characterises the step recovery diode.

Today, Step recovery diodes are manfucatured by ASI-Semiconductor, [1] MicroSemi [2] , M-Pulse [3] and Macom [4] .

Historical note

The first published paper on the SRD is ( Boff, Moll & Shen 1960 ): the authors start the brief survey stating that "the recovery characteristics of certain types of pn-junction diodes exhibit a discontinuity which may be used to advantage for the generation of harmonics or for the production of millimicrosecond pulses". They also refer that they first observed this phenomenon in February, 1959

A nanosecond (ns) is an SI unit of time equal to one thousand-millionth of a second, that is, 1/1,000,000,000 of a second, or 10−9 seconds.

Operating the SRD

Physical principles

The main phenomenon used in SRDs is the storage of electric charge during forward conduction, which is present in all semiconductor junction diodes and is due to finite lifetime of minority carriers in semiconductors. Assume that the SRD is forward biased and in steady state i.e. the anode bias current does not change with time: since charge transport in a junction diode is mainly due to diffusion, i.e. to a non constant spatial charge carrier density caused by bias voltage, a charge Qs is stored in the device. This stored charge depends on

Electric charge physical property that quantifies an objects interaction with electric fields

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field. There are two types of electric charges; positive and negative. Like charges repel and unlike attract. An object with an absence of net charge is referred to as neutral. Early knowledge of how charged substances interact is now called classical electrodynamics, and is still accurate for problems that do not require consideration of quantum effects.

A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a metal, like copper, gold, etc. and an insulator, such as glass. Their resistance decreases as their temperature increases, which is behaviour opposite to that of a metal. Their conducting properties may be altered in useful ways by the deliberate, controlled introduction of impurities ("doping") into the crystal structure. Where two differently-doped regions exist in the same crystal, a semiconductor junction is created. The behavior of charge carriers which include electrons, ions and electron holes at these junctions is the basis of diodes, transistors and all modern electronics. Some examples of semiconductors are silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide. After silicon, gallium arsenide is the second most common semiconductor used in laser diodes, solar cells, microwave frequency integrated circuits, and others. Silicon is a critical element for fabricating most electronic circuits.

In systems theory, a system or a process is in a steady state if the variables which define the behavior of the system or the process are unchanging in time. In continuous time, this means that for those properties p of the system, the partial derivative with respect to time is zero and remains so:

  1. Intensity of the forward anode currentIA flowing in the device during its steady state.
  2. Minority carrier lifetimeτ, i.e. the mean time a free charge carrier moves inside a semiconductor region before recombining.

Quantitatively, if the steady state of forward conduction lasts for a time much greater than τ, the stored charge has the following approximate expression

Now suppose that the voltage bias abruptly changes, switching from its stationary positive value to a higher magnitude constant negative value: then, since a certain amount of charge has been stored during forward conduction, diode resistance is still low (i.e. the anode-to-cathode voltage VAK has nearly the same forward conduction value). Anode current does not cease but reverses its polarity (i.e. the direction of its flow) and stored charge Qs starts to flow out of the device at an almost constant rate IR. All the stored charge is thus removed in a certain amount of time: this time is the storage time tS and its approximate expression is

In mathematics, magnitude is the size of a mathematical object, a property which determines whether the object is larger or smaller than other objects of the same kind. More formally, an object's magnitude is the displayed result of an ordering of the class of objects to which it belongs.

When all stored charge has been removed, diode resistance suddenly changes, rising to its cut-off value at reverse bias within a time tTr, the transition time: this behavior can be used to produce pulses with rise time equal to this time.

In electronics, cut-off is a state of negligible conduction that is a property of several types of electronic components when a control parameter, is lowered or increased past a value. The transition from normal conduction to cut-off can be more or less sharp, depending on the type of device considered, and also the speed of this transition varies considerably.

Operation of the Drift Step Recovery Diode (DSRD)

The Drift Step Recovery Diode (DSRD) was discovered by Russian scientists in 1981 (Grekhov et al., 1981). The principle of the DSRD operation is similar to the SRD, with one essential difference - the forward pumping current should be pulsed, not continuous, because drift diodes function with slow carriers.

The principle of DSRD operation can be explained as follows: A short pulse of current is applied in the forward direction of the DSRD effectively "pumping" the P-N junction, or in other words, “charging” the P-N junction capacitively. When the current direction reverses, the accumulated charges are removed from the base region.

As soon as the accumulated charge decreases to zero, the diode opens rapidly. A high voltage spike can appear due to the self-induction of the diode circuit. The larger the commutation current and the shorter the transition from forward to reverse conduction, the higher the pulse amplitude and efficiency of the pulse generator (Kardo-Sysoev et al., 1997).

Usages

See also

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This article provides a more detailed explanation of p–n diode behavior than that found in the articles p–n junction or diode.

References

The following two books contain a comprehensive analysis of the theory of non-equilibrium charge transport in semiconductor diodes, and give also an overview of applications (at least up to the end of the seventies).

The following application notes deals extensively with practical circuits and applications using SRDs.

  1. http://adsemi.com/diodes/step_recovery.shtml
  2. https://www.microsemi.com/product-directory/varactor-diodes/3150-step-recovery-diodes
  3. http://www.mpulsemw.com/SRD_Diode.htm
  4. https://www.macom.com/products/diodes/multiplier-step-recovery-diodes
  5. https://www.microsemi.com/document-portal/doc_download/8699-gc2500-series-pdf
  6. http://www.mwrf.com/analog-semiconductors/designing-step-recovery-diode-based-comb-generator
  7. http://hpmemoryproject.org/an/pdf/an_913.pdf
  8. http://www.mwrf.com/analog-semiconductors/designing-step-recovery-diode-based-comb-generator
  9. http://www.imst.de/itg9_1/vortraege/dezember2006/folien_01.pdf
  10. http://www.google.com/patents/US5900747