Magic eye tube

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EM34 tuning eye Em11-ani.gif
EM34 tuning eye
EM84 tuning indicator EM84-Betrieb.jpg
EM84 tuning indicator

A magic eye tube or tuning indicator, in technical literature called an electron-ray indicator tube, [1] is a vacuum tube which gives a visual indication of the amplitude of an electronic signal, such as an audio output, radio-frequency signal strength, or other functions. [1] The magic eye (also called a cat's eye, or tuning eye in North America) is a specific type of such a tube with a circular display similar to the EM34 illustrated. Its first broad application was as a tuning indicator in radio receivers, to give an indication of the relative strength of the received radio signal, to show when a radio station was properly tuned in. [1]

Vacuum tube Device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container

In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or valve or, colloquially, a tube, is a device that controls electric current flow in a high vacuum between electrodes to which an electric potential difference has been applied.

Radio receiver radio device for receiving radio waves and converting them to a useful signal

In radio communications, a radio receiver, also known as a receiver, wireless or simply radio is an electronic device that receives radio waves and converts the information carried by them to a usable form. It is used with an antenna. The antenna intercepts radio waves and converts them to tiny alternating currents which are applied to the receiver, and the receiver extracts the desired information. The receiver uses electronic filters to separate the desired radio frequency signal from all the other signals picked up by the antenna, an electronic amplifier to increase the power of the signal for further processing, and finally recovers the desired information through demodulation.

Contents

The magic eye tube was the first in a line of development of cathode ray type tuning indicators developed as a cheaper alternative to the needle movement meters. It was not until the 1960s that needle meters were made economically enough in Japan to displace indicator tubes. [2] Tuning indicator tubes were used in vacuum tube receivers from around 1936 to 1980 before vacuum tubes were replaced by transistors in radios. [3] An earlier tuning aid which the magic eye replaced was the "tuneon" neon lamp. [3] [4]

Neon lamp Light source based on gas discharge

A neon lamp is a miniature gas discharge lamp. The lamp typically consists of a small glass capsule that contains a mixture of neon and other gases at a low pressure and two electrodes. When sufficient voltage is applied and sufficient current is supplied between the electrodes, the lamp produces an orange glow discharge. The glowing portion in the lamp is a thin region near the cathode; the larger and much longer neon signs are also glow discharges, but they use the positive column which is not present in the ordinary neon lamp. Neon glow lamps were widely used as indicator lamps in the displays of electronic instruments and appliances.

History

The magic eye tube (or valve) for tuning radio receivers was invented in 1932 by Allen B. DuMont (who spent most of the 1930s improving the lifetime of cathode ray tubes, and ultimately formed the DuMont Television Network). [5] [6] [7]

Allen B. DuMont Scientist, inventor

Allen Balcom DuMont, also spelled Du Mont, was an American electronics engineer, scientist and inventor best known for improvements to the cathode ray tube in 1931 for use in television receivers. Seven years later he manufactured and sold the first commercially practical television set to the public. In June 1938, his Model 180 television receiver was the first all-electronic television set ever sold to the public, a few months prior to RCA's first set in April 1939. In 1946, DuMont founded the first television network to be licensed, the DuMont Television Network, initially by linking station WABD in New York City to station W3XWT, which later became WTTG, in Washington, D.C. DuMont's successes in television picture tubes, TV sets and components and his involvement in commercial TV broadcasting made him the first millionaire in the business.

DuMont Television Network Former American television network

The DuMont Television Network was one of the world's pioneer commercial television networks, rivalling NBC and CBS for the distinction of being first overall in the United States. It was owned by Allen B. DuMont Laboratories, a television equipment and set manufacturer, and began operation on June 28, 1942.

The RCA 6E5 from 1935 was the first commercial tube. [8] [9]

The earlier types were end-viewed (see the EM34), usually with an octal or side-contact base. Later developments featured a smaller side-viewed noval B9A based all-glass type with either a fan type display or a band display (see the EM84). The end-viewed version had a round cone-shaped fluorescent screen together with the black cap that shielded the red light from the cathode/heater assembly. This design prompted the contemporary advertisers to coin the term magic eye, a term still used.

There was also a sub-miniature version with wire ends (Mullard DM70/DM71, Mazda 1M1/1M3, GEC/Marconi Y25) intended for battery operation, used in one Ever Ready AM/FM battery receiver with push-pull output, as well as a small number of AM/FM mains receivers, which lit the valve from the 6.3V heater supply via a 220 ohm resistor or from the audio output valve's cathode bias. Some reel-to-reel tape recorders also used the DM70/DM71 to indicate recording level, including a transistorized model with the valve lit from the bias-oscillator voltage.

Ohm SI derived unit of electrical resistance

The ohm is the SI derived unit of electrical resistance, named after German physicist Georg Simon Ohm. Although several empirically derived standard units for expressing electrical resistance were developed in connection with early telegraphy practice, the British Association for the Advancement of Science proposed a unit derived from existing units of mass, length and time and of a convenient size for practical work as early as 1861. The definition of the ohm was revised several times. Today, the definition of the ohm is expressed from the quantum Hall effect.

The function of a magic eye can be achieved with modern semiconductor circuitry and optoelectronic displays. The high voltages (100 Volts or more) required by these tubes are not present in modern devices, so the magic eye tube is now obsolete.

A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor, such as metallic copper, and an insulator, such as glass. Its resistance decreases as its temperature increases, which is the behaviour opposite to that of a metal. Its conducting properties may be altered in useful ways by the deliberate, controlled introduction of impurities ("doping") into the crystal structure. Where two differently-doped regions exist in the same crystal, a semiconductor junction is created. The behavior of charge carriers which include electrons, ions and electron holes at these junctions is the basis of diodes, transistors and all modern electronics. Some examples of semiconductors are silicon, germanium, gallium arsenide, and elements near the so-called "metalloid staircase" on the periodic table. After silicon, gallium arsenide is the second most common semiconductor and is used in laser diodes, solar cells, microwave-frequency integrated circuits and others. Silicon is a critical element for fabricating most electronic circuits.

Operation

Schematic diagram of a magic eye indicator tube: a = anode , k = cathode g = grid, b = deflection Indicatorbuis.png
Schematic diagram of a magic eye indicator tube: a = anode , k = cathode g = grid, b = deflection

Magic eye tubes are miniature cathode ray tube, usually with a built-in triode signal amplifier. It usually glows bright green, (occasionally yellow in some very old types, e.g., EM4) and the glowing ends grow to meet in the middle as the voltage on a control grid increases. It is used in a circuit that drives the grid with a voltage that changes with signal strength; as the tuning knob is turned, the gap in the eye becomes narrowest when a station is tuned in correctly.

Internally, the device is a vacuum tube consisting of two plate electrode assemblies, one creating a triode amplifier and the other a display section consisting of a conical-shaped target anode coated with zinc-silicate or similar material. The display section's anode is usually directly connected to the receiver's full positive high tension (HT) voltage, whilst the triode-anode is usually (internally) connected to a control electrode mounted between the cathode and the target-anode, and externally connected to positive HT via a high-value resistor, typically 1 megaohm.

When the receiver is switched on but not tuned to a station, the target-anode glows green due to electrons striking it, with the exception of the area by the internal control-electrode. This electrode is typically 150-200V negative with respect to the target-anode, repelling electrons from the target in this region, causing a dark sector to appear on the display.

The control-grid of the triode-amplifier section is connected to a point where a negative control voltage dependent on signal strength is available, e.g. the AGC line in an AM superheterodyne receiver, or the limiter stage or FM detector in an FM receiver. As a station is tuned in the triode-grid becomes more negative with respect to the common cathode.

Use in radios

6G5 Magic eye tube RCA 6G5 Magic eye tube.JPG
6G5 Magic eye tube

The purpose of magic eye tubes in radio sets is to help with accurate tuning to a station; the tube makes peaks in signal strength more obvious by producing a visual indication, which is better than using the ear alone. The eye is especially useful because the automatic gain control (AGC) action tends to increase the audio volume of a mistuned station, so the volume varies relatively little as the tuning knob is turned. The tuning eye was driven by the AGC voltage rather than the audio signal.

When, in the early 1950s, FM radio sets were made available on the UK market, many different types of magic eye tubes were made available, with differing displays, but they all worked the same way. Some had a separate small display to light up indicating a stereo signal on FM.

The British Leak company used an EM84 indicator as a very precise tuning-indicator in their Troughline FM tuner series, by mixing the AGC voltages from the two limiter valve grids at the indicator sensing-grid. By this means accurate tuning was indicated by a fully open sharp shadow, whilst off-tune the indicator produced a partially closed shadow.

Other applications

Magic eye tubes were used as the recording level indicator for tape recorders, and it is also possible to use them (in a specially adapted circuit) as a means of rough frequency comparison as a simpler alternative to Lissajous figures.

A magic eye tube acts as an inexpensive uncalibrated (and not necessarily linear) voltage indicator, and can be used wherever an indication of voltage is needed, saving the cost of a more accurate calibrated meter.

At least one design of capacitance bridge uses this type of tube to indicate that the bridge is balanced.

The magic eye tube was also used on the cover of My Morning Jacket's 2011 album Circuital . The tube was shown as being almost fully lit.

See also

Related Research Articles

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A valve amplifier or tube amplifier is a type of electronic amplifier that uses vacuum tubes to increase the amplitude or power of a signal. Low to medium power valve amplifiers for frequencies below the microwaves were largely replaced by solid state amplifiers in the 1960s and 1970s. Valve amplifiers can be used for applications such as guitar amplifiers, satellite transponders such as DirecTV and GPS, audiophile stereo amplifiers, military applications and very high power radio and UHF television transmitters.

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Control grid vacuum tube electrode

The control grid is an electrode used in amplifying thermionic valves such as the triode, tetrode and pentode, used to control the flow of electrons from the cathode to the anode (plate) electrode. The control grid usually consists of a cylindrical screen or helix of fine wire surrounding the cathode, and is surrounded in turn by the anode. The control grid was invented by Lee De Forest, who in 1906 added a grid to the Fleming valve to create the first amplifying vacuum tube, the Audion (triode).

Gas-filled tube arrangement of electrodes in a gas within an insulating, temperature-resistant envelope

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In Europe, the principal method of numbering vacuum tubes was the nomenclature used by the Philips company and its subsidiaries Mullard in the UK, Valvo(de, it) in Germany, Radiotechnique (Miniwatt-Dario brand) in France, and Amperex in the United States, from 1934 on. Adhering manufacturers include AEG (de), CdL (1921, French Mazda brand), CIFTE (fr, Mazda-Belvu brand), EdiSwan (British Mazda brand), Lorenz (de), MBLE(fr, nl), RCA (us), RFT(de, sv) (de), Siemens (de), Telefunken (de), Tesla (cz), Toshiba (ja), Tungsram (hu), and Unitra. This system allocated meaningful codes to tubes based on their function and became the starting point for the Pro Electron naming scheme for active devices.

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Barkhausen–Kurz tube high frequency vacuum tube electronic oscillator


The Barkhausen–Kurz tube, also called the retarding-field tube, reflex triode, B–K oscillator, and Barkhausen oscillator was a high frequency vacuum tube electronic oscillator invented in 1920 by German physicists Heinrich Georg Barkhausen and Karl Kurz. It was the first oscillator that could produce radio power in the ultra-high frequency (UHF) portion of the radio spectrum, above 300 MHz. It was also the first oscillator to exploit electron transit time effects. It was used as a source of high frequency radio waves in research laboratories, and in a few UHF radio transmitters through World War 2. Its output power was low which limited its applications. However it inspired research that led to other more successful transit time tubes such as the klystron, which made the low power Barkhausen-Kurz tube obsolete.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Spangenberg, Karl R. (1948). Vacuum Tubes (PDF). New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. pp. 723–724.
  2. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 17, 2012. Retrieved July 29, 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  3. 1 2 Erb, Ernest (July 27, 2009). "History of tuning indicators; meters, graphs, Magic Eye, LED". Radio History forum. RadioMuseum.com. Retrieved August 23, 2014.
  4. Radio Museum: Tuneon
  5. US 2098231, DuMont, Allen B.,"Cathode ray device",published May 28, 1932,issued November 9, 1937
  6. US 2163256, DuMont, Allen B.,"Cathode ray tube",published September 18, 1934,issued June 20, 1939
  7. David Weinstein, The Forgotten Network: DuMont and the Birth of American Television. Temple University Press, 2006, p.11
  8. Herbert M. Wagner of R.C.A. invented the familiar form of the "magic eye" tuning vacuum tube: US 2051189,Wagner, H. M.,"Tuning indicator tube",published June 27, 1935,issued August 18, 1936
  9. Radio Museum: 6E5