Unijunction transistor

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Transistor UJT
Unijunction transistors.jpg
Unijunction transistors
Type active
Invented General Electric (1953)
Pin configurationB2, B1, emitter
Electronic symbol
UJT N symbol (case).svg UJT P symbol (case).svg

A unijunction transistor (UJT) is a three-lead electronic semiconductor device with only one junction that acts exclusively as an electrically controlled switch.

Electronics physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter

Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter.

A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor, such as metallic copper, and an insulator, such as glass. Its resistance decreases as its temperature increases, which is behaviour opposite to that of a metal. Its conducting properties may be altered in useful ways by the deliberate, controlled introduction of impurities ("doping") into the crystal structure. Where two differently-doped regions exist in the same crystal, a semiconductor junction is created. The behavior of charge carriers which include electrons, ions and electron holes at these junctions is the basis of diodes, transistors and all modern electronics. Some examples of semiconductors are silicon, germanium, gallium arsenide, and elements near the so-called "metalloid staircase" on the periodic table. After silicon, gallium arsenide is the second most common semiconductor and is used in laser diodes, solar cells, microwave-frequency integrated circuits and others. Silicon is a critical element for fabricating most electronic circuits.

Contents

The UJT is not used as a linear amplifier. It is used in free-running oscillators, synchronized or triggered oscillators, and pulse generation circuits at low to moderate frequencies (hundreds of kilohertz). It is widely used in the triggering circuits for silicon controlled rectifiers. The low cost per unit, combined with its unique characteristic, have warranted its use in a wide variety of applications like oscillators, pulse generators, saw-tooth generators, triggering circuits, phase control, timing circuits, and voltage- or current-regulated supplies. [1] The original unijunction transistor types are now considered obsolete, but a later multi-layer device, the programmable unijunction transistor, is still widely available.

Silicon controlled rectifier semiconductor electronic device with three p-n junctions, mainly used in devices where the control of high power is demanded

A silicon controlled rectifier or semiconductor controlled rectifier is a four-layer solid-state current-controlling device. The principle of four-layer p–n–p–n switching was developed by Moll, Tanenbaum, Goldey and Holonyak of Bell Laboratories in 1956. The practical demonstration of silicon controlled switching and detailed theoretical behavior of a device in agreement with the experimental results was presented by Dr Ian M. Mackintosh of Bell Laboratories in January 1958. The name "silicon controlled rectifier" is General Electric's trade name for a type of thyristor. The SCR was developed by a team of power engineers led by Gordon Hall and commercialized by Frank W. "Bill" Gutzwiller in 1957.

Programmable unijunction transistor three-lead electronic semiconductor device with which is similar in characteristic to unijunction transistor except that it is programmable

Programmable unijunction transistor (PUT) is a three-lead electronic semiconductor device with which is similar in characteristic to unijunction transistor except that it is programmable.

Types

Graph of UJT characteristic curve, emitter-base1 voltage as a function of emitter current, showing current-controlled negative resistance (downward-sloping region) UJT caratteristica.png
Graph of UJT characteristic curve, emitter-base1 voltage as a function of emitter current, showing current-controlled negative resistance (downward-sloping region)

There are three types of unijunction transistor:

  1. The original unijunction transistor, or UJT, is a simple device that is essentially a bar of n-type semiconductor material into which p-type material has been diffused somewhere along its length, fixing the device parameter (the "intrinsic stand-off ratio"). The 2N2646 model is the most commonly used version of the UJT.
  2. The complementary unijunction transistor, or CUJT, is a bar of p-type semiconductor material into which n-type material has been diffused somewhere along its length, defining the device parameter . The 2N6114 model is one version of the CUJT.
  3. The programmable unijunction transistor, or PUT, is a multi-junction device that, with two external resistors, displays similar characteristics to the UJT. It is a close cousin to the thyristor and like the thyristor consists of four p-n layers. It has an anode and a cathode connected to the first and the last layer, and a gate connected to one of the inner layers. PUTs are not directly interchangeable with conventional UJTs but perform a similar function. In a proper circuit configuration with two "programming" resistors for setting the parameter , they behave like a conventional UJT. The 2N6027, 2N6028 [2] and BRY39 models are examples of such devices.

Applications

Unijunction transistor circuits were popular in hobbyist electronics circuits in the 1960s and 1970s because they allowed simple oscillators to be built using just one active device. For example, they were used for relaxation oscillators in variable-rate strobe lights. [3] Later, as integrated circuits became more popular, oscillators such as the 555 timer IC became more commonly used.

Relaxation oscillator

In electronics a relaxation oscillator is a nonlinear electronic oscillator circuit that produces a nonsinusoidal repetitive output signal, such as a triangle wave or square wave. The circuit consists of a feedback loop containing a switching device such as a transistor, comparator, relay, op amp, or a negative resistance device like a tunnel diode, that repetitively charges a capacitor or inductor through a resistance until it reaches a threshold level, then discharges it again. The period of the oscillator depends on the time constant of the capacitor or inductor circuit. The active device switches abruptly between charging and discharging modes, and thus produces a discontinuously changing repetitive waveform. This contrasts with the other type of electronic oscillator, the harmonic or linear oscillator, which uses an amplifier with feedback to excite resonant oscillations in a resonator, producing a sine wave. Relaxation oscillators are used to produce low frequency signals for applications such as blinking lights and electronic beepers and in voltage controlled oscillators (VCOs), inverters and switching power supplies, dual-slope analog to digital converters, and function generators.

Integrated circuit

An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece of semiconductor material that is normally silicon. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip results in circuits that are orders of magnitude smaller, faster, and less expensive than those constructed of discrete electronic components. The IC's mass production capability, reliability, and building-block approach to circuit design has ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors. ICs are now used in virtually all electronic equipment and have revolutionized the world of electronics. Computers, mobile phones, and other digital home appliances are now inextricable parts of the structure of modern societies, made possible by the small size and low cost of ICs.

555 timer IC Most popular integrated circuit ever manufactured

The 555 timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) used in a variety of timer, pulse generation, and oscillator applications. The 555 can be used to provide time delays, as an oscillator, and as a flip-flop element. Derivatives provide two (556) or four (558) timing circuits in one package.

In addition to its use as the active device in relaxation oscillators, one of the most important applications of UJTs or PUTs is to trigger thyristors (silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR), TRIAC, etc.). A DC voltage can be used to control a UJT or PUT circuit such that the "on-period" increases with an increase in the DC control voltage. This application is important for large AC current control.

Thyristor semiconductor device with three or more p-n junctions, having two steady states: off (non-conducting) and on (conducting)

A thyristor is a solid-state semiconductor device with four layers of alternating P- and N-type materials. It acts exclusively as a bistable switch, conducting when the gate receives a current trigger, and continuing to conduct until the voltage across the device is reversed biased, or until the voltage is removed. A three-lead thyristor is designed to control the larger current of the Anode to Cathode path by controlling that current with the smaller current of its other lead, known as its Gate. In contrast, a two-lead thyristor is designed to switch on if the potential difference between its leads is sufficiently large.

TRIAC generic trademark for a three-terminal thyristor that conducts current in either direction when triggered

TRIAC, from triode for alternating current, is a generic trademark for a three terminal electronic component that conducts current in either direction when triggered. Its formal name is bidirectional triode thyristor or bilateral triode thyristor. A thyristor is analogous to a relay in that a small voltage induced current can control a much larger voltage and current. The illustration on the right shows the circuit symbol for a TRIAC where A1 is Anode 1, A2 is Anode 2, and G is Gate. Anode 1 and Anode 2 are normally termed Main Terminal 1 (MT1) and Main Terminal 2 (MT2) respectively.

UJTs can also be used to measure magnetic flux. The hall effect modulates the voltage at the PN junction. This affects the frequency of UJT relaxation oscillators. [4] This only works with UJTs. PUTs do not exhibit this phenomenon.

Hall effect effect of production of a voltage difference across an electrical conductor

The Hall effect is the production of a voltage difference across an electrical conductor, transverse to an electric current in the conductor and to an applied magnetic field perpendicular to the current. It was discovered by Edwin Hall in 1879. For clarity, the original effect is sometimes called the ordinary Hall effect to distinguish it from other "Hall effects" which have different physical mechanisms.

Construction

Structure of a p-type UJT UJT struttura.png
Structure of a p-type UJT

The UJT has three terminals: an emitter (E) and two bases (B1 and B2) and so is sometimes known a "double-base diode". The base is formed by a lightly doped n-type bar of silicon. Two ohmic contacts B1 and B2 are attached at its ends. The emitter is of p-type is heavily doped; this single PN junction gives the device its name. The resistance between B1 and B2 when the emitter is open-circuit is called interbase resistance. The emitter junction is usually located closer to base-2 (B2) than base-1 (B1) so that the device is not symmetrical, because a symmetrical unit does not provide optimum electrical characteristics for most of the applications.

If no potential difference exists between its emitter and either of its base leads, there is an extremely small current from B1 to B2. On the other hand, if an adequately large voltage relative to its base leads, known as the trigger voltage, is applied to its emitter, then a very large current from its emitter joins the current from B1 to B2, which creates a larger B2 output current.

The schematic diagram symbol for a unijunction transistor represents the emitter lead with an arrow, showing the direction of conventional current when the emitter-base junction is conducting a current. A complementary UJT uses a p-type base and an n-type emitter, and operates the same as the n-type base device but with all voltage polarities reversed.

The structure of a UJT is similar to that of an N-channel JFET, but p-type (gate) material surrounds the N-type (channel) material in a JFET, and the gate surface is larger than the emitter junction of UJT. A UJT is operated with the emitter junction forward-biased while the JFET is normally operated with the gate junction reverse-biased. It is a current-controlled negative resistance device.

Device operation

The device has a unique characteristic that when it is triggered, its emitter current increases regeneratively until it is restricted by emitter power supply. It exhibits a negative resistance characteristic and so it can be employed as an oscillator.

The UJT is biased with a positive voltage between the two bases. This causes a potential drop along the length of the device. When the emitter voltage is driven approximately one diode voltage above the voltage at the point where the P diffusion (emitter) is, current will begin to flow from the emitter into the base region. Because the base region is very lightly doped, the additional current (actually charges in the base region) causes conductivity modulation which reduces the resistance of the portion of the base between the emitter junction and the B2 terminal. This reduction in resistance means that the emitter junction is more forward biased, and so even more current is injected. Overall, the effect is a negative resistance at the emitter terminal. This is what makes the UJT useful, especially in simple oscillator circuits.

Invention

The unijunction transistor was invented as a byproduct of research on germanium tetrode transistors at General Electric. [5] It was patented in 1953. Commercially, silicon devices were manufactured [6] . A common part number is 2N2646.

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References

  1. J. F. Cleary (ed.), General Electric Transistor Manual, General Electric, 1964 Chapter 13 "Unijunction Transistor Circuits"
  2. 2N6027, 2N6028 data sheet by ON Semiconductor, at farnell.com
  3. Ronald M. Benrey (October 1964). "A Repeating Flash You Can Build". Popular Science. 185 (4): 132–136.
  4. Agrawal, S. L.; Saha, D. P.; Swami, R.; Singh, R. P. (23 April 1987). "Digital magnetic fluxmeter using unijunction transistor probe". International Journal of Electronics. 63 (6): 905–910. doi:10.1080/00207218708939196.
  5. Jack Ward (2005). "Transistor Museum Oral History Suran Index GE Unijunction Transistors". SemiconductorMuseum.com. Retrieved April 10, 2017.
  6. "General Electric History - Transistor History". Google.com. Retrieved April 10, 2017.