Chelonitoxism

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Chelonitoxism is a type of food poisoning from eating marine turtles. [1] It is considered rare. [2]

Hawksbill turtle meat is one source of the biotoxin as well as green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas). [1] Celonitoxism has also been reported in the New Guinea giant softshell turtle. [3] Chelontoxism can be deadly and there is no known antidote. [4] [5] Sea turtle is a traditional food in the outer Micronesian islands. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, dysphagia, and abdominal pain. [1] Severe cases can induce coma and multiorgan problems. Children are especially susceptible and the toxins have been reported to transfer via breastfeeding. [1]

Green sea turtle Species of large sea reptile of the family Cheloniidae

The green sea turtle, also known as the green turtle, black (sea) turtle or Pacific green turtle, is a species of large sea turtle of the family Cheloniidae. It is the only species in the genus Chelonia. Its range extends throughout tropical and subtropical seas around the world, with two distinct populations in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, but it is also found in the Indian Ocean. The common name refers to the usually green fat found beneath its carapace, not to the color of its carapace, which is olive to black.

The New Guinea giant softshell turtle is a species of softshell turtle in the family Trionychidae. The species is endemic to New Guinea. P. bibroni is referred to by the Suki people as kiya eise, a reference to its flexible shell. In the Arammba language, it is called sokrere, meaning "earthquake". It is sometimes hunted by local villages for its meat and/or eggs, leading to some cases of chelonitoxism.

An antidote is a substance that can counteract a form of poisoning. The term ultimately derives from the Greek term φάρμακον ἀντίδοτον (pharmakon) antidoton, "(medicine) given as a remedy". Antidotes for anticoagulants are sometimes referred to as reversal agents.

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A toxin is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded. The term was first used by organic chemist Ludwig Brieger (1849–1919), derived from the word toxic.

Seafood food from the sea, e.g. fish, shrimp, crab, mussel, seaweed

Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans, prominently including fish and shellfish. Shellfish include various species of molluscs, crustaceans, and echinoderms. Historically, marine mammals such as cetaceans as well as seals have been eaten as food, though that happens to a lesser extent in modern times. Edible sea plants such as some seaweeds and microalgae are widely eaten as sea vegetables around the world, especially in Asia. In North America, although not generally in the United Kingdom, the term "seafood" is extended to fresh water organisms eaten by humans, so all edible aquatic life may be referred to as "seafood". For the sake of completeness, this article is inclusive of all edible aquatic life.

Sea turtle superfamily of reptiles

Sea turtles, sometimes called marine turtles, are reptiles of the order Testudines and of the suborder Cryptodira. The seven existing species of sea turtles are the green sea turtle, loggerhead sea turtle, Kemp's ridley sea turtle, olive ridley sea turtle, hawksbill sea turtle, flatback sea turtle, and leatherback sea turtle.

Tetrodotoxin chemical compound

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin. Its name derives from Tetraodontiformes, an order that includes pufferfish, porcupinefish, ocean sunfish, and triggerfish; several of these species carry the toxin. Although tetrodotoxin was discovered in these fish and found in several other aquatic animals, it is actually produced by certain infecting or symbiotic bacteria like Pseudoalteromonas, Pseudomonas, and Vibrio as well as other species found in animals.

Foodborne illness illness resulting from food that is spoiled or contaminated by pathogenic bacteria, viruses, parasites, or toxins

Foodborne illness is any illness resulting from the spoilage of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites that contaminate food, as well as toxins such as poisonous mushrooms and various species of beans that have not been boiled for at least 10 minutes.

Tomalley

Tomalley, crab fat, or lobster paste is the soft, green substance found in the body cavity of lobsters, that fulfills the functions of both the liver and the pancreas. Tomalley corresponds to the hepatopancreas in other arthropods. It is considered a delicacy, and may be eaten alone but is often added to sauces for flavour and as a thickening agent. The term lobster paste or lobster pâté can also be used to indicate a mixture of tomalley and lobster roe. Lobster bisque, lobster stock, and lobster consommé are made using lobster bodies (heads), often including the lobster liver.

Palytoxin Chemical compound

Palytoxin, PTX or PLTX is an intense vasoconstrictor, and is considered to be one of the most poisonous non-protein substances known, second only to maitotoxin in terms of toxicity in mice.

Flatback sea turtle species of sea turtle

The Australian flatback sea turtle is a species of sea turtle in the family Cheloniidae. The species is endemic to the sandy beaches and shallow coastal waters of the Australian continental shelf. This turtle gets its common name from the fact that its shell has a flattened or lower dome than the other sea turtles. It can be olive green to grey with a cream underside. It averages from 76 to 96 cm in carapace length and can weigh from 70 to 90 kg. The hatchlings, when emerging from nests, are larger than other sea turtle hatchlings when they hatch. The flatback turtle is listed by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species as Data Deficient, meaning there is insufficient scientific information to determine its conservation status at this time. It was previously listed as Vulnerable in 1994. It is not as threatened as other sea turtles due to its small dispersal range.

Fish as food food consumed by many species, including humans

Many species of fish are consumed as food in virtually all regions around the world. Fish has been an important source of protein and other nutrients for humans throughout history.

Paralytic shellfish poisoning Syndrome of shellfish poisoning

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is one of the four recognized syndromes of shellfish poisoning, which share some common features and are primarily associated with bivalve mollusks. These shellfish are filter feeders and accumulate neurotoxins, chiefly saxitoxin, produced by microscopic algae, such as dinoflagellates, diatoms, and cyanobacteria. Dinoflagellates of the genus Alexandrium are the most numerous and widespread saxitoxin producers and are responsible for PSP blooms in subarctic, temperate, and tropical locations. The majority of toxic blooms have been caused by the morphospecies Alexandrium catenella, Alexandrium tamarense, Gonyaulax catenella and Alexandrium fundyense, which together comprise the A. tamarense species complex. In Asia, PSP is mostly associated with the occurrence of the species Pyrodinium bahamense.

Ndrondroni

Ndrondroni is a town located on the island of Mohéli in the Comoros. The town received international attention in December 2012, when cases of the rare chelonitoxism foodborne illness left three residents dead and 30 ill.

Turtle soup soup or stew made from the flesh of the turtle

Turtle soup is soup or stews made from the meat of turtles. Differing versions of the soup exist in some cultures and are viewed as a delicacy.

Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) is an illness caused by consumption of the marine biotoxin called domoic acid. In mammals, including humans, domoic acid acts as a neurotoxin, causing permanent short-term memory loss, brain damage, and death in severe cases.

Penicillium crustosum is a blue-green or blue-grey mold that can cause food spoilage, particularly of protein-rich foods such as meats and cheeses. It is identified by its complex biseriate conidiophores on which phialides produce asexual spores. It can grow at fairly low temperatures, and in low water activity environments.

Food safety incidents in China Wikimedia list article

Food safety incidents in China have received increased international media scrutiny following the reform and opening of the country, and its joining the World Trade Organization. Urban areas have become more aware of food safety as their incomes rise. Food safety agencies in China have overlapping duties. The 2008 Chinese milk scandal received the most attention among food safety incidents.

Azaspiracid group of chemical compounds

Azaspiracids (AZA) are a group of polycyclic ether marine algal toxins produced by the small dinoflagellate Azadinium spinosum that can accumulate in shellfish and thereby cause illness in humans.

Ground meat finely-chopped meat

Ground meat, called mince or minced meat outside of North America, and keema or qeema in the Indian subcontinent, is finely chopped by a meat grinder or a chopping knife. A common type of ground meat is ground beef, but many other types of meats are prepared in a similar fashion, including pork, lamb, and poultry. In the Indian subcontinent, both mutton and goat meat are also minced to produce keema.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 Multiple fatalities following ingestion of sea turtle meat Archived 2014-04-13 at the Wayback Machine NACCT Congress – September 23–26, 2011 Washington DC POSTER SESSION III 169
  2. Fussy, Agnès; Pommier, Philip; Lumbroso, Catherine; De Haro, Luc (2007). "Chelonitoxism: New case reports in French Polynesia and review of the literature". Toxicon. 49 (6): 827–32. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2006.12.002. PMID   17250862.
  3. Silas, E. G.; Fernando, A. Bastian (1984). "Turtle poisoning". CMFRI Bulletin35: 62–75.
  4. Chelontoxism Food Safety Net
  5. Pacific Islanders die after feasting on poisonous turtle meat Telegraph