Christian Rohlfs

Last updated
Christian Rohlfs, self-portrait (1918) Rohlfs - Selbstbildnis, 1918.jpeg
Christian Rohlfs, self-portrait (1918)

Christian Rohlfs (November 22, 1849 January 8, 1938) was a German painter and printmaker, one of the important representatives of German expressionism.

Contents

Life

Abstraction (the Blue Mountain) Christian Rohlfs - Abstraction (the Blue Mountain) - Google Art Project.jpg
Abstraction (the Blue Mountain)

He was born in Groß Niendorf, Kreis Segeberg in Prussia. He took up painting as a teenager while convalescing from an infection [1] that was eventually to lead to the amputation of a leg in 1874. [2] He began his formal artistic education in Berlin, [2] before transferring, in 1870, to the Weimar Academy. [1] Initially he painted large-scale landscapes, working through a variety of academic, naturalist, Impressionist, and Post-Impressionist styles. In 1901 left Weimar for Hagen, where the collector Karl Ernst Osthaus had offered him a studio in the modern art museum he was setting up there. Meetings with Edvard Munch and Emil Nolde and the experience of seeing the works of Vincent van Gogh inspired him to move towards the expressionist style, in which he would work for the rest of his career. [1]

In 1908, at the age of 60, he made his first prints after seeing an exhibition of works by the expressionist group Die Brücke . He went on to make 185 in total, almost all woodcuts or linocuts. [1] In rare instances he experimented with heavily hand-coloring his prints, onto the verge of painting and sometimes well after they were made, as in his 1919 recoloring of the prior year's Der Gefangene. [3]

In May 1922 he attended the International Congress of Progressive Artists and signed the "Founding Proclamation of the Union of Progressive International Artists". [4]

He lived in Munich and the Tyrol in 1910–12, before returning to Hagen. In 1929 the town of Hagen opened a Christian Rohlfs Museum. [2] In 1937 the Nazis expelled him from the Prussian Academy of Arts, condemned his work as degenerate, and removed his works from public collections. [1] He died in Hagen, Westfalia, on January 8, 1938.

Works

Related Research Articles

Emil Nolde

Emil Nolde was a German-Danish painter and printmaker. He was one of the first Expressionists, a member of Die Brücke, and was one of the first oil painting and watercolor painters of the early 20th century to explore color. He is known for his brushwork and expressive choice of colors. Golden yellows and deep reds appear frequently in his work, giving a luminous quality to otherwise somber tones. His watercolors include vivid, brooding storm-scapes and brilliant florals.

George Grosz Prussian-American painter and illustrator

George Grosz was a German artist known especially for his caricatural drawings and paintings of Berlin life in the 1920s. He was a prominent member of the Berlin Dada and New Objectivity groups during the Weimar Republic. He immigrated to the United States in 1933, and became a naturalized citizen in 1938. Abandoning the style and subject matter of his earlier work, he exhibited regularly and taught for many years at the Art Students League of New York. In 1959 he returned to Berlin where he died shortly after.

Henry van de Velde

Henry Clemens van de Velde was a Belgian painter, architect, interior designer, and art theorist. Together with Victor Horta and Paul Hankar, he is considered one of the founders of Art Nouveau in Belgium. He worked in Paris with Samuel Bing, the founder of the first gallery of Art Nouveau in Paris. Van de Velde spent the most important part of his career in Germany and became a major figure in the German Jugendstil. He had a decisive influence on German architecture and design at the beginning of the 20th century.

August Macke

August Robert Ludwig Macke was a German Expressionist painter. He was one of the leading members of the German Expressionist group Der Blaue Reiter. He lived during a particularly innovative time for German art: he saw the development of the main German Expressionist movements as well as the arrival of the successive avant-garde movements which were forming in the rest of Europe. Like a true artist of his time, Macke knew how to integrate into his painting the elements of the avant-garde which most interested him.

New Objectivity

The New Objectivity was a movement in German art that arose during the 1920s as a reaction against expressionism. The term was coined by Gustav Friedrich Hartlaub, the director of the Kunsthalle in Mannheim, who used it as the title of an art exhibition staged in 1925 to showcase artists who were working in a post-expressionist spirit. As these artists—who included Max Beckmann, Otto Dix, George Grosz, Christian Schad, Rudolf Schlichter and Jeanne Mammen—rejected the self-involvement and romantic longings of the expressionists, Weimar intellectuals in general made a call to arms for public collaboration, engagement, and rejection of romantic idealism.

Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 20th-century German painter, sculptor, engraver and printmaker

Ernst Ludwig Kirchner was a German expressionist painter and printmaker and one of the founders of the artists group Die Brücke or "The Bridge", a key group leading to the foundation of Expressionism in 20th-century art. He volunteered for army service in the First World War, but soon suffered a breakdown and was discharged. His work was branded as "degenerate" by the Nazis in 1933, and in 1937 more than 600 of his works were sold or destroyed.

Gabriele Münter

Gabriele Münter was a German expressionist painter who was at the forefront of the Munich avant-garde in the early 20th century. She studied and lived with the painter Wassily Kandinsky and was a founding member of the expressionist group Der Blaue Reiter.

Otto Mueller German painter and printmaker

Otto Müller was a German painter and printmaker of the Die Brücke expressionist movement.

Karl Hofer

Karl Christian Ludwig Hofer or Carl Hofer was a German expressionist painter. He was director of the Berlin Academy of Fine Arts.

Art Academy of Cincinnati

The Art Academy of Cincinnati is a private college of art and design in Cincinnati, Ohio, accredited by the National Association of Schools of Art and Design. It was founded as the McMicken School of Design in 1869, and was a department of the University of Cincinnati, and later in 1887, became the Art Academy of Cincinnati, the museum school of the Cincinnati Art Museum.

Conrad Felixmüller

Conrad Felixmüller was a German expressionist painter and printmaker. Born in Dresden as Conrad Felix Müller, he chose Felixmüller as his nom d'artiste.

Ludwig Meidner German expressionist artist

Ludwig Meidner was a German expressionist painter and printmaker born in Bernstadt, Silesia. Meidner is best known for his painted, drawn, and printed portraits and landscapes.

Karl Ernst Osthaus

Karl Ernst Osthaus was an important German patron of avant-garde art and architecture.

Osthaus-Museum Hagen

The Karl Ernst Osthaus-Museum is an art museum in Hagen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. The center of the museum is a building whose interior was designed by Henry van de Velde to house Karl Ernst Osthaus' art collection, open to the public as the Museum Folkwang. When Osthaus' heirs sold his art collection to the city of Essen, the city of Hagen gained possession of the empty museum building. For a time it served as offices for the local electric company.

Walter Gramatté German artist

Walter Gramatté was a German expressionist painter who specialized in magic realism. He worked in Berlin, Hamburg, Hiddensee and Barcelona. He often painted with a mystical view of nature. Many of his works were inspired by his experiences in the First World War and his illness.

Norwegian art

For much of its history Norwegian art is usually considered as part of the wider Nordic art of Scandinavia. It has, especially since about 1100, been strongly influenced by wider trends in European art. After World War II, the influence of the United States strengthened substantially. Due to generous art subsidies, contemporary Norwegian art has a high production per capita.

Will Lammert

Will Lammert was a German sculptor. In 1959 he was posthumously awarded the National Prize of the German Democratic Republic.

Emil Bartoschek was a German painter and Bauhaus-artist.

Theodor Hagen (artist)

Theodor Joseph Hagen was a German painter and art teacher.

Max Kaus was a German "second generation" expressionist painter and graphic artist. He was also influential as a university level teacher and as deputy director at the Academy for visual arts in the city at that time known as West Berlin.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 "Christian Rohlfs (German, 1849–1938)". Museum of Modern Art, New York. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
  2. 1 2 3 "Christian Rohlfs". German Art in the 20th Century: Painting and Sculpture 1905 1985 (Catalogue of an exhibition held at the Royal Academy of Arts, London). London: Royal Academy of Arts/ Prestel Verlag. 1985. pp. 497–8.
  3. Cole, William. "Christian Rohlfs: Der Gefangene," Art in Print, Vol. 4 No. 1 (May–June 2014).
  4. van Doesburg, Theo. "De Stijl, "A Short Review of the Proceedings [of the Congress of International Progressive Artists], Followed by the Statements Made by the Artists' Groups" (1922)". modernistarchitecture.wordpress.com. Ross Lawrence Wolfe. Retrieved 30 November 2018.