In topology, a clopen set (a portmanteau of closed-open set) in a topological space is a set which is both open and closed. That this is possible may seem counter-intuitive, as the common meanings of open and closed are antonyms, but their mathematical definitions are not mutually exclusive. A set is closed if its complement is open, which leaves the possibility of an open set whose complement is also open, making both sets both open and closed, and therefore clopen. As described by topologist James Munkres, unlike a door, "a set can be open, or closed, or both, or neither!"emphasizing that the meaning of "open"/"closed" for doors is unrelated to their meaning for sets (and so the open/closed door dichotomy does not transfer to open/closed sets). This contrast to doors gave the class of topological spaces known as "door spaces" their name.
In any topological space the empty set and the whole space are both clopen.
Now consider the space which consists of the union of the two open intervals and of The topology on is inherited as the subspace topology from the ordinary topology on the real line In the set is clopen, as is the set This is a quite typical example: whenever a space is made up of a finite number of disjoint connected components in this way, the components will be clopen.
Now let be an infinite set under the discrete metric –that is, two points have distance 1 if they're not the same point, and 0 otherwise. Under the resulting metric space, any singleton set is open; hence any set, being the union of single points, is open. Since the complement of any set is therefore closed, all sets in the metric space are clopen.
As a less trivial example, consider the space of all rational numbers with their ordinary topology, and the set of all positive rational numbers whose square is bigger than 2. Using the fact that is not in one can show quite easily that is a clopen subset of ( is not a clopen subset of the real line ; it is neither open nor closed in )
Let be a subset of a topological space. Prove that if and only if is open and closed.(Given as Exercise 7)
In topology and related branches of mathematics, a connected space is a topological space that cannot be represented as the union of two or more disjoint non-empty open subsets. Connectedness is one of the principal topological properties that are used to distinguish topological spaces.
In mathematics, a topological space is called separable if it contains a countable, dense subset; that is, there exists a sequence of elements of the space such that every nonempty open subset of the space contains at least one element of the sequence.
In mathematics, a topological space is, roughly speaking, a geometrical space in which closeness is defined but, generally, cannot be measured by a numeric distance. More specifically, a topological space is a set of points, along with a set of neighbourhoods for each point, satisfying a set of axioms relating points and neighbourhoods.
This is a glossary of some terms used in the branch of mathematics known as topology. Although there is no absolute distinction between different areas of topology, the focus here is on general topology. The following definitions are also fundamental to algebraic topology, differential topology and geometric topology.
In mathematics, open sets are a generalization of open intervals in the real line. In a metric space—that is, when a distance is defined—open sets are the sets that, with every point P, contain all points that are sufficiently near to P.
In mathematics, the closure of a subset S of points in a topological space consists of all points in S together with all limit points of S. The closure of S may equivalently be defined as the union of S and its boundary, and also as the intersection of all closed sets containing S. Intuitively, the closure can be thought of as all the points that are either in S or "near" S. A point which is in the closure of S is a point of closure of S. The notion of closure is in many ways dual to the notion of interior.
In geometry, topology, and related branches of mathematics, a closed set is a set whose complement is an open set. In a topological space, a closed set can be defined as a set which contains all its limit points. In a complete metric space, a closed set is a set which is closed under the limit operation. This should not be confused with a closed manifold.
In mathematics, the real line, or real number line is the line whose points are the real numbers. That is, the real line is the set R of all real numbers, viewed as a geometric space, namely the Euclidean space of dimension one. It can be thought of as a vector space, a metric space, a topological space, a measure space, or a linear continuum.
In mathematics, specifically in topology, the interior of a subset S of a topological space X is the union of all subsets of S that are open in X. A point that is in the interior of S is an interior point of S.
In mathematics, a base or basis for the topology τ of a topological space (X, τ) is a family B of open subsets of X such that every open set of the topology is equal to a union of some sub-family of B. For example, the set of all open intervals in the real number line is a basis for the Euclidean topology on because every open interval is an open set, and also every open subset of can be written as a union of some family of open intervals.
In topology and mathematics in general, the boundary of a subset S of a topological space X is the set of points which can be approached both from S and from the outside of S. More precisely, it is the set of points in the closure of not belonging to the interior of An element of the boundary of is called a boundary point of The term boundary operation refers to finding or taking the boundary of a set. Notations used for boundary of a set include and Some authors use the term frontier instead of boundary in an attempt to avoid confusion with a different definition used in algebraic topology and the theory of manifolds. Despite widespread acceptance of the meaning of the terms boundary and frontier, they have sometimes been used to refer to other sets. For example, Metric Spaces by E. T. Copson uses the term boundary to refer to Hausdorff's border, which is defined as the intersection of a set with its boundary. Hausdorff also introduced the term residue, which is defined as the intersection of a set with the closure of the border of its complement.
In mathematics, general topology is the branch of topology that deals with the basic set-theoretic definitions and constructions used in topology. It is the foundation of most other branches of topology, including differential topology, geometric topology, and algebraic topology. Another name for general topology is point-set topology.
In mathematics, a topological space is said to be a Baire space, if for any given countable collection of closed sets with empty interior in , their union also has empty interior in . Equivalently, a locally convex space which is not meagre in itself is called a Baire space. According to Baire category theorem, compact Hausdorff spaces and complete metric spaces are examples of a Baire space. Bourbaki coined the term "Baire space".
In the mathematical field of topology, a Gδ set is a subset of a topological space that is a countable intersection of open sets. The notation originated in German with G for Gebiet meaning open set in this case and δ for Durchschnitt. The term inner limiting set is also used. Gδ sets, and their dual, F𝜎 sets, are the second level of the Borel hierarchy.
In topology, a topological space is called simply connected if it is path-connected and every path between two points can be continuously transformed into any other such path while preserving the two endpoints in question. The fundamental group of a topological space is an indicator of the failure for the space to be simply connected: a path-connected topological space is simply connected if and only if its fundamental group is trivial.
In mathematics, a field of sets is a mathematical structure consisting of a pair consisting of a set and a family of subsets of called an algebra over that contains the empty set as an element, and is closed under the operations of taking complements in finite unions, and finite intersections.
In topology and related areas of mathematics, a topological property or topological invariant is a property of a topological space which is invariant under homeomorphisms. That is, a property of spaces is a topological property if whenever a space X possesses that property every space homeomorphic to X possesses that property. Informally, a topological property is a property of the space that can be expressed using open sets.
In mathematics, a cylinder set is a set in the standard basis for the open sets of the product topology; they are also a generating family of the cylinder σ-algebra, which in the countable case is the product σ-algebra.
In topology and other branches of mathematics, a topological space X is locally connected if every point admits a neighbourhood basis consisting entirely of open, connected sets.