The Convention of Aguascalientes was a major meeting that took place during the Mexican Revolution between the factions in the Mexican Revolution that had defeated Victoriano Huerta's Federal Army and forced his resignation and exile in July 1914.
The call for the Convention was issued on 1 October 1914 by Venustiano Carranza, head of the Constitutional Army, who described it as the Gran Convención de Jefes militares con mando de fuerzas y gobernadores de los Estados ("Great Convention of Commanding Military Chiefs and State Governors") and seen as "the last attempt to create unity among the revolutionaries."
Its first sessions were held in the Chamber of Deputies in Mexico City, but were later transferred to the city of Aguascalientes, whence its name came, where it met from 10 October to 9 November 1914.
General Victoriano Huerta, who had usurped the presidency in a coup d'état in February 1913, resigned the office in July 1914 on account of revolutionary pressures and left the country. He was replaced by Venustiano Carranza, who wished to discuss his government's policies with the other revolutionary leaders. Thus Carranza called for the Convention to take place. However, faced with the absence of the Zapatistas (who did not recognise Carranza's authority) and the refusal of Francisco Villa to attend a meeting in Mexico City, it was agreed to relocate the Convention to Aguascalientes.
The convention was intended to settle the differences between the "big four" warlords who played the biggest roles in overthrowing Huerta: Pancho Villa, Emiliano Zapata, Venustiano Carranza and Álvaro Obregón.
A question that the various factions had to settle in advance of the convention was whether participants would only be revolutionary military men or could include civilians as well. Carranza had a large and strong civilian backing, and argued for their inclusion but lost.
Tensions were already high between Carranza and Villa, his former ally. Although Zapata had not openly sided with Villa initially, he was hostile to Carranza, with Carranza returning the feeling. According to Charles C. Cumberland, "The southerners had never liked Carranza and his pretensions, and Carranza despised the Zapatistas as ignorant, narrow-minded troublemakers."
From the onset, however, the Convention was dominated by the Villistas, who imposed their points of view on the other delegates. The supporters of Emiliano Zapata did not arrive until 26 October (a delegation of 26, led by Paulino Martínez and Antonio Díaz Soto y Gama).
When the Convention first met on October 10, 1914, it declared itself sovereign, which meant that it was a deliberative body, not a consultative one. Carranza rejected the notion of sovereignty and did not himself attend the convention or send representatives.Zapata had not yet arrived and the delegates made the decision to not conclude any major business until he and his advisers attended. Zapata arrived with an entourage of men with military titles, "but most of them [were] in fact civilians who had never led troops in any form."
There was a plan to merge revolutionary armies into a single military, which would have structurally taken the place of the Federal Army that ceased to exist with the fall of the Huerta regime. There was some support for this in theory, but the revolutionary armies had formed and fought under the command of particular leaders (such as Villa, Obregón, Zapata and Abraham González) and so in the current circumstances it was impossible to implement.
The convention elected General Eulalio Gutiérrez Ortiz as President of Republic for the limited term of 20 days.It appointed Villa commander of the Conventionalist Army, which then took up arms against Carranza's Constitutionalist Army. Due to the disagreements that Carranza had with Zapata and Villa, the three refused to attend the convention and little developed as a result.
After the meeting, the newly reconciled Villa and Zapata entered Mexico City on 6 December, at the head of an army of 60,000 men. Carranza and his supporters consequently retreated to Veracruz. Subsequently, Zapata returned to his stronghold in Morelos, so that the alliance with Villa was largely in principle only.
Emiliano Zapata Salazar was a leading figure in the Mexican Revolution, the main leader of the peasant revolution in the state of Morelos, and the inspiration of the agrarian movement called Zapatismo.
The Mexican Revolution was a major armed struggle, lasting roughly from 1910 to 1920, that transformed Mexican culture and government. Although recent research has focused on local and regional aspects of the revolution, it was a genuinely national revolution. Its outbreak in 1910 resulted from the failure of the 31-year-long regime of Porfirio Díaz to find a managed solution to presidential succession. This meant there was a political crisis among competing elites and the opportunity for agrarian insurrection. Wealthy landowner Francisco I. Madero challenged Díaz in the 1910 presidential election, and following the rigged results, revolted under the Plan of San Luis Potosí. Armed conflict broke out in northern Mexico and Díaz was forced out. In the Treaty of Ciudad Juárez, Díaz resigned and went into exile, new elections were to occur in the fall, and an interim presidency under Francisco León de la Barra was installed. A new election was held in 1911, bringing Madero to the presidency.
José Venustiano Carranza de la Garza was one of the main leaders of the Mexican Revolution, whose victorious northern revolutionary Constitutionalist Army defeated the counter-revolutionary regime of Victoriano Huerta and then defeated fellow revolutionaries after Huerta's ouster. He secured power in Mexico, serving as head of state from 1915 to 1917. With the promulgation of a new revolutionary Mexican Constitution of 1917, he was elected president, serving from 1917 to 1920.
Álvaro Obregón Salido was a general in the Mexican Revolution, who became President of Mexico from 1920 to 1924. He supported Sonora's decision to follow Governor of Coahuila Venustiano Carranza as leader of a revolution against the Victoriano Huerta regime. Carranza appointed Obregón commander of the revolutionary forces in northwestern Mexico and in 1915 appointed him as his minister of war. In 1920, Obregón launched a revolt against Carranza, in which Carranza was assassinated. Obregón won the subsequent election with overwhelming support.
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Events in the year 1914 in Mexico.
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