DEEP2 Redshift Survey

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DEEP2 Redshift Survey

The DEEP2 Survey or DEEP2 was a two-phased Redshift survey of the Redshift z=~1 universe (where z= a measure of speed and by extension, the distance from earth). It used the twin 10 metre Keck telescopes in Hawaii (the world's second largest optical telescope) to measure the spectra and hence the redshifts of approximately 50,000 galaxies. It was the first project to study galaxies in the distant Universe with the resolution of local surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and was completed in 2013.

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Redshift Eventual increase of wavelength in radiation during travel

In physics, a redshift is an increase in the wavelength, and corresponding decrease in the frequency and photon energy, of electromagnetic radiation. The opposite change, a decrease in wavelength and simultaneous increase in frequency and energy, is known as a negative redshift, or blueshift. The terms derive from the colours red and blue which form the extremes of the visible light spectrum.

GALEX NASA satellite of the Explorer program

Galaxy Evolution Explorer was a NASA orbiting space telescope designed to observe the universe in ultraviolet wavelengths to measure the history of star formation in the universe. In addition to paving the way for future ultraviolet missions, the space telescope allowed astronomers to uncover mysteries about the early universe and how it evolved, as well as better characterize phenomena like black holes and dark matter. The mission was extended three times over a period of 10 years before it was decommissioned in June 2013. GALEX was launched on 28 April 2003 and decommissioned in June 2013.

Observational cosmology Study of the origin of the universe (structure and evolution)

Observational cosmology is the study of the structure, the evolution and the origin of the universe through observation, using instruments such as telescopes and cosmic ray detectors.

Sloan Digital Sky Survey Multi-spectral imaging and spectroscopic redshift survey

The Sloan Digital Sky Survey or SDSS is a major multi-spectral imaging and spectroscopic redshift survey using a dedicated 2.5-m wide-angle optical telescope at Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico, United States. The project was named after the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, which contributed significant funding.

Redshift survey

In astronomy, a redshift survey is a survey of a section of the sky to measure the redshift of astronomical objects: usually galaxies, but sometimes other objects such as galaxy clusters or quasars. Using Hubble's law, the redshift can be used to estimate the distance of an object from Earth. By combining redshift with angular position data, a redshift survey maps the 3D distribution of matter within a field of the sky. These observations are used to measure detailed statistical properties of the large-scale structure of the universe. In conjunction with observations of early structure in the cosmic microwave background, these results can place strong constraints on cosmological parameters such as the average matter density and the Hubble constant.

Astronomical survey General map or image of a region of the sky with no specific observational target.

An astronomical survey is a general map or image of a region of the sky that lacks a specific observational target. Alternatively, an astronomical survey may comprise a set of images, spectra, or other observations of objects that share a common type or feature. Surveys are often restricted to one band of the electromagnetic spectrum due to instrumental limitations, although multiwavelength surveys can be made by using multiple detectors, each sensitive to a different bandwidth.

The Deep Lens Survey is an ultra-deep multi-band optical survey of seven 4 square degree fields. Mosaic CCD imagers at the National Optical Astronomy Observatory's Blanco and Mayall telescopes are being used. The deep fields took five years to complete (2001–2006), in four bands: B, V, R, and z', to 29/29/29/28 mag per square arcsecond surface brightness. Optical transient events and supernova candidates are released in real time.

UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey

The UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey or UKIDSS is an astronomical survey conducted using the WFCAM wide field camera on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. Survey observations were commenced in 2005.

Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey

The Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey, or GOODS, is an astronomical survey combining deep observations from three of NASA's Great Observatories: the Hubble Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Chandra X-ray Observatory, along with data from other space-based telescopes, such as XMM Newton, and some of the world's most powerful ground-based telescopes.

Baryon acoustic oscillations Fluctuations in the density of the normal matter of the universe

In cosmology, baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) are fluctuations in the density of the visible baryonic matter of the universe, caused by acoustic density waves in the primordial plasma of the early universe. In the same way that supernovae provide a "standard candle" for astronomical observations, BAO matter clustering provides a "standard ruler" for length scale in cosmology. The length of this standard ruler is given by the maximum distance the acoustic waves could travel in the primordial plasma before the plasma cooled to the point where it became neutral atoms, which stopped the expansion of the plasma density waves, "freezing" them into place. The length of this standard ruler can be measured by looking at the large scale structure of matter using astronomical surveys. BAO measurements help cosmologists understand more about the nature of dark energy by constraining cosmological parameters.

6dF Galaxy Survey

The 6dF Galaxy Survey, 6dF or 6dFGS is a redshift survey conducted by the Anglo-Australian Observatory (AAO) with the 1.2m UK Schmidt Telescope between 2001 and 2009. The data from this survey were made public on 31 March, 2009. The survey has mapped the nearby universe over nearly half the sky. Its 136,304 spectra have yielded 110,256 new extragalactic redshifts and a new catalog of 125,071 galaxies. For a subsample of 6dF a peculiar velocity survey is measuring mass distribution and bulk motions of the local Universe. As of July 2009, it is the third largest redshift survey next to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS).

Euclid (spacecraft) European infrared space observatory

Euclid is a visible to near-infrared space telescope currently under development by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Euclid Consortium. The objective of the Euclid mission is to better understand dark energy and dark matter by accurately measuring the acceleration of the universe. To achieve this, the Korsch-type telescope will measure the shapes of galaxies at varying distances from Earth and investigate the relationship between distance and redshift. Dark energy is generally accepted as contributing to the increased acceleration of the expanding universe, so understanding this relationship will help to refine how physicists and astrophysicists understand it. Euclid's mission advances and complements ESA's Planck telescope. The mission is named after the ancient Greek mathematician Euclid of Alexandria.

UDFy-38135539 Distant galaxy in the constellation Fornax

UDFy-38135539 is the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF) identifier for a galaxy which was calculated as of October 2010 to have a light travel time of 13.1 billion years with a present proper distance of around 30 billion light-years.

ULAS J1120+0641 One of the most distant quasars known

ULAS J1120+0641 was the most distant known quasar when discovered in 2011, surpassed in 2017 by ULAS J1342+0928. ULAS J1120+0641 was the first quasar discovered beyond a redshift of 7. Its discovery was reported in June 2011.

SXDF-NB1006-2 is a distant galaxy located in the Cetus constellation, with a spectroscopic redshift of z = 7.213 or 12.91 billion light-years away. It was discovered by the Subaru XMM-Newton Deep Survey Field. The galaxy was claimed to be the most distant galaxy at announcement in June 2012, as the more distant claimants were not confirmed spectroscopically at the time. It exceeded the previous confirmed distance holder, GN-108036, also discovered by the Subaru. It contains the oldest oxygen in the Universe

GN-z11 High-redshift galaxy that is the oldest and most distant known galaxy

GN-z11 is a high-redshift galaxy found in the constellation Ursa Major. The 2015 discovery was published in a 2016 paper headed by Pascal Oesch and Gabriel Brammer. Up until the discovery of HD1 in 2022, GN-z11 was the oldest and most distant known galaxy yet identified in the observable universe, having a spectroscopic redshift of z = 11.09, which corresponds to a proper distance of approximately 32 billion light-years.

Hyperion proto-supercluster Galaxy cluster in the constellation Sextans

The Hyperion proto-supercluster is the largest and earliest known proto-supercluster, 5,000 times the mass of the Milky Way and seen at 20% of the current age of the universe. It was discovered in 2018 by analysing the redshifts of 10,000 objects observed with the Very Large Telescope in Chile.

HD1 (galaxy) High-redshift galaxy that is the oldest and most distant known galaxy

HD1 is a proposed high-redshift galaxy, and is considered, as of April 2022, to be the earliest and most distant known galaxy yet identified in the observable universe. It is seen as it was about 330 million years after the Big Bang 13.8 billion years ago. It has a light-travel distance of 13.5 billion light-years from Earth, and, due to the expansion of the universe, a present proper distance of 33.4 billion light-years.