Decimus Carfulenus, called Carsuleius by Appianus, was a Roman statesman from the time of the Civil War to the Battle of Mutina, in which he perished.
Appian of Alexandria was a Greek historian with Roman citizenship who flourished during the reigns of Emperors of Rome Trajan, Hadrian, and Antoninus Pius.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. The Roman empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117.
The Great Roman Civil War, also known as Caesar's Civil War, was one of the last politico-military conflicts in the Roman Republic before the establishment of the Roman Empire. It began as a series of political and military confrontations, between Julius Caesar, his political supporters, and his legions, against the Optimates, the politically conservative and socially traditionalist faction of the Roman Senate, who were supported by Pompey and his legions.
Carfulenus served under Caesar in the Alexandrine War, B.C. 47. Hirtius describes him as a man of great military skill.
Gaius Julius Caesar, known by his nomen and cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician, military general, and historian who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. He is also known as an author of Latin prose.
Aulus Hirtius was one of the consuls of the Roman Republic and a writer on military subjects.
At the time of Caesar's murder in 44 B.C., Carfulenus was tribune of the plebs. He was a supporter of the aristocratic party, and an opponent of Marcus Antonius, the general of Caesar. When Antonius summoned the senate to the Capitol on November 28, in order to have Caesar's nephew, Octavianus, declared an enemy of the state, Carfulenus and his colleagues, Tiberius Canutius and Lucius Cassius Longinus, were excluded from the Capitol, so that they could not interpose their veto against the senate's decree.
Tribune was the title of various elected officials in ancient Rome. The two most important were the tribunes of the plebs and the military tribunes. For most of Roman history, a college of ten tribunes of the plebs acted as a check on the authority of the senate and the annual magistrates, holding the power of ius intercessionis to intervene on behalf of the plebeians, and veto unfavourable legislation. There were also military tribunes, who commanded portions of the Roman army, subordinate to higher magistrates, such as the consuls and praetors, promagistrates, and their legates. Various officers within the Roman army were also known as tribunes. The title was also used for several other positions and classes in the course of Roman history.
Marcus Antonius, commonly known in English as Mark Antony or Anthony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.
The Roman Senate was a political institution in ancient Rome. It was one of the most enduring institutions in Roman history, being established in the first days of the city of Rome,. It survived the overthrow of the kings in 509 BC, the fall of the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC, the division of the Roman Empire in 395 AD, the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD, and the barbarian rule of Rome in the 5th, 6th, and 7th centuries.
In the following year, Carfulenus took an active part in the war against Antonius. He fell in the Battle of Mutina, in which Antonius was defeated.
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have expired, been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable.
Sir William Smith was an English lexicographer. He also made advances in the teaching of Greek and Latin in schools.
The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology is an encyclopedia/biographical dictionary. Edited by William Smith, the dictionary spans three volumes and 3,700 pages. It is a classic work of 19th-century lexicography. The work is a companion to Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities and Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography.
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Year 43 BC was either a common year starting on Sunday, Monday or Tuesday or a leap year starting on Sunday or Monday of the Julian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Proleptic Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Pansa and Hirtius. The denomination 43 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
This article concerns the period 49 BC – 40 BC.
This article concerns the period 59 BC – 50 BC.
Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus was a Roman politician and general of the 1st century BC and one of the leading instigators of Julius Caesar's assassination. Decimus Brutus is not to be confused with the more famous Brutus among the conspirators, Marcus Brutus, though he often is.
The gens Pontia was a plebeian family at Rome. Few members of this gens rose to prominence in the time of the Republic, but the Pontii flourished under the Empire, eventually attaining the consulship.
The Battle of Forum Gallorum was fought on 14 April 43 BCE near a village in northern Italy between the forces of Mark Antony and legions loyal to the Roman Senate under the overall command of consul Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus, aided by his fellow consul Aulus Hirtius and the untested Caesar Octavian.
Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus was consul of the Roman Republic in 43 BC. Although supporting Gaius Julius Caesar during the Civil War, he pushed for the restoration of the Republic upon Caesar’s death. He died of injuries sustained at the Battle of Forum Gallorum.
The Battle of Mutina took place on 21 April 43 BC between the forces loyal to the Senate under consuls Gaius Vibius Pansa and Aulus Hirtius, supported by the legions of Caesar Octavian, and the Caesarian legions of Mark Antony who were besieging the troops of Decimus Brutus. The latter, one of Caesar's assassins, held the city of Mutina in Cisalpine Gaul.
The gens Octavia was a plebeian family at Rome, which was raised to patrician status by Caesar during the first century BC. The first member of the gens to achieve prominence was Gnaeus Octavius Rufus, quaestor circa 230 BC. Over the following two centuries, the Octavii held many of the highest offices of the state; but the most celebrated of the family was Gaius Octavius, the grandnephew and adopted son of Caesar, who was proclaimed Augustus by the senate in 27 BC.
The Philippicae or Philippics are a series of 14 speeches Cicero gave condemning Mark Antony in 44 and 43 BC. Cicero likened these speeches to those of Demosthenes' Philippic, which Demosthenes had delivered against Philip of Macedon. Cicero's Second Philippic is in-fact styled after Demosthenes' De Corona.
The gens Decia was a plebeian family of high antiquity, which became illustrious in Roman history by two of its members sacrificing themselves for the preservation of their country. The first of the family known to history was Marcus Decius, chosen as a representative of the plebeians during the secession of 495 BC.
The gens Barbatia was a Roman family during the first century BC. It may have originated with Marcus Barbatius Philippus, a runaway slave who became a friend of Caesar, and subsequently obtained the praetorship under Marcus Antonius. In 40 BC, he was quaestor propraetore under Antonius.
The gens Caesetia was a Roman family during the late Republic. It is known from a small number of individuals.
The gens Titia was a plebeian family at Rome. The gens is rarely mentioned in the Republican period, and did not rise out of obscurity till a very late time. None of its members obtained the consulship under the Republic, and the first person of the name who held this office was Marcus Titius in BC 31.
The gens Sextilia was a plebeian family at Rome. The first member of this gens to achieve prominence was Gaius Sextilius, consular tribune in 379 BC. None of the family obtained the consulship, but they endured throughout Roman history from the early Republic into imperial times.
Tiberius Canutius or Cannutius was tribune of the plebs in 44 BC, the year of Caesar's assassination. As a supporter of the senatorial party, he opposed the triumvirs, resorting to military force during the Perusine War. He was captured and put to death by Octavianus in 40 BC.
The gens Carfulena was a plebeian family at Rome toward the end of the Republic. The gens is best known from Decimus Carfulenus, who served under Caesar during the Alexandrine War; other members are known from inscriptions.
The gens Coponia was a plebeian family at Rome. The family was prominent at Rome during the first century BC. The most famous of the gens may have been Gaius Coponius, praetor in 49 BC, and a partisan of Pompeius, whom although proscribed by the triumvirs in 43, was subsequently pardoned, and came to be regarded as a greatly respected member of the Senate.
The gens Fannia was a plebeian family at Rome. No members of this gens are mentioned in Roman history prior to the second century BC, and the first who obtained the consulship was Gaius Fannius Strabo, in BC 161.
The gens Munatia was a plebeian family at Rome. Members of this gens are first mentioned during the second century BC, but they did not obtain any of the higher offices of the Roman state until imperial times.