Enterprise information system

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An enterprise information system (EIS) is any kind of information system which improves the functions of enterprise business processes by integration. This means typically offering high quality of service, dealing with large volumes of data and capable of supporting some large and possibly complex organization or enterprise. An EIS must be able to be used by all parts and all levels of an enterprise. [1]

Information systems (IS) are formal, sociotechnical, organizational systems designed to collect, process, store, and distribute information. In a sociotechnical perspective, information systems are composed by four components: task, people, structure, and technology.

Data facts represented for handling

Data is a set of values of subjects with respect to qualitative or quantitative variables.

Organization social entity (not necessarily commercial) uniting people into a structured group managing shared means to meet some needs, or to pursue collective goals

An organization or organisation is an entity comprising multiple people, such as an institution or an association, that has a particular purpose.

Contents

The word enterprise can have various connotations. Frequently the term is used only to refer to very large organizations such as multi-national companies or public-sector organizations. However, the term may be used to mean virtually anything, by virtue of it having become the latest corporate-speak buzzword.[ citation needed ]

A buzzword is a word or phrase, new or already existing, that becomes very popular for a period of time. Buzzwords often derive from technical terms yet often have much of the original technical meaning removed through fashionable use, being simply used to impress others; although such "buzzwords" may still have the full meaning when used in certain technical contexts. Buzzwords often originate in jargon, acronyms, or neologisms. Examples of overworked business buzzwords include synergy, vertical, dynamic, cyber and strategy; a common buzzword phrase is "think outside the box".

Purpose

Enterprise information systems provide a technology platform that enables organizations to integrate and coordinate their business processes on a robust foundation. An EIS is currently used in conjunction with customer relationship management and supply chain management to automate business processes. [1] An enterprise information system provides a single system that is central to the organization that ensures information can be shared across all functional levels and management hierarchies.

Enterprise integration

Enterprise integration is a technical field of enterprise architecture, which focused on the study of topics such as system interconnection, electronic data interchange, product data exchange and distributed computing environments.

An EIS can be used to increase business productivity and reduce service cycles, product development cycles and marketing life cycles. [1] It may be used to amalgamate existing applications. Other outcomes include higher operational efficiency and cost savings. [1]

Productivity describes various measures of the efficiency of production. A productivity measure is expressed as the ratio of output to inputs used in a production process, i.e. output per unit of input. Productivity is a crucial factor in production performance of firms and nations. Increasing national productivity can raise living standards because more real income improves people's ability to purchase goods and services, enjoy leisure, improve housing and education and contribute to social and environmental programs. Productivity growth can also help businesses to be more profitable. There are many different definitions of productivity and the choice among them depends on the purpose of the productivity measurement and/or data availability.

In a business context, operational efficiency can be defined as the ratio between an output gained from the business and an input to run a business operation. When improving operational efficiency, the output to input ratio improves.

Financial value is not usually a direct outcome from the implementation of an enterprise information system. [2]

Design stage

At the design stage the main characteristic of EIS efficiency evaluation is the probability of timely delivery of various messages such as command, service, etc. [3]

Information systems

Enterprise systems create a standard data structure and are invaluable in eliminating the problem of information fragmentation caused by multiple information systems within an organization. An EIS differentiates itself from legacy systems in that it is self-transactional, self-helping and adaptable to general and specialist conditions. [1] Unlike an enterprise information system, legacy systems are limited to department-wide communications. [2]

A typical enterprise information system would be housed in one or more data centers, would run enterprise software, and could include applications that typically cross organizational borders such as content management systems.

See also

Related Research Articles

Enterprise resource planning refers to the corporate task of optimizing the existing resources in a company

Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is the integrated management of core business processes, often in real-time and mediated by software and technology.

A management information system (MIS) is an information system used for decision-making, and for the coordination, control, analysis, and visualization of information in an organization; especially in a company.

An Executive information system (EIS), also known as an Executive support system (ESS), is a type of management support system that facilitates and supports senior executive information and decision-making needs. It provides easy access to internal and external information relevant to organizational goals. It is commonly considered a specialized form of decision support system (DSS).

Enterprise application integration (EAI) is the use of software and computer systems' architectural principles to integrate a set of enterprise computer applications.

Java EE Connector Architecture (JCA) is a Java-based technology solution for connecting application servers and enterprise information systems (EIS) as part of enterprise application integration (EAI) solutions. While JDBC is specifically used to connect Java EE applications to databases, JCA is a more generic architecture for connection to legacy systems. JCA was developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 16, JSR 112 and JSR 322.

Enterprise architecture (EA) is "a well-defined practice for conducting enterprise analysis, design, planning, and implementation, using a comprehensive approach at all times, for the successful development and execution of strategy. Enterprise architecture applies architecture principles and practices to guide organizations through the business, information, process, and technology changes necessary to execute their strategies. These practices utilize the various aspects of an enterprise to identify, motivate, and achieve these changes."

A business analyst (BA) is someone who analyzes an organization or business domain and documents its business or processes or systems, assessing the business model or its integration with technology.

Enterprise content management (ECM) extends the concept of content management by adding a time line for each content item and possibly enforcing processes for the creation, approval and distribution of them. Systems that implement ECM generally provide a secure repository for managed items, be they analog or digital, that indexes them. They also include one or more methods for importing content to bring new items under management and several presentation methods to make items available for use.

In business and accounting, information technology controls are specific activities performed by persons or systems designed to ensure that business objectives are met. They are a subset of an enterprise's internal control. IT control objectives relate to the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of data and the overall management of the IT function of the business enterprise. IT controls are often described in two categories: IT general controls (ITGC) and IT application controls. ITGC include controls over the Information Technology (IT) environment, computer operations, access to programs and data, program development and program changes. IT application controls refer to transaction processing controls, sometimes called "input-processing-output" controls. Information technology controls have been given increased prominence in corporations listed in the United States by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The COBIT Framework is a widely used framework promulgated by the IT Governance Institute, which defines a variety of ITGC and application control objectives and recommended evaluation approaches. IT departments in organizations are often led by a Chief Information Officer (CIO), who is responsible for ensuring effective information technology controls are utilized.

Enterprise software, also known as enterprise application software (EAS), is computer software used to satisfy the needs of an organization rather than individual users. Such organizations include businesses, schools, interest-based user groups, clubs, charities, and governments. Enterprise software is an integral part of a (computer-based) information system.

Enterprise modelling

Enterprise modelling is the abstract representation, description and definition of the structure, processes, information and resources of an identifiable business, government body, or other large organization.

Legacy modernization, or software modernization, refers to the conversion, rewriting or porting of a legacy system to a modern computer programming language, software libraries, protocols, or hardware platform. Legacy transformation aims to retain and extend the value of the legacy investment through migration to new platforms.

IT application portfolio management (APM) is a practice that has emerged in mid to large-size information technology (IT) organizations since the mid-1990s. Application portfolio management attempts to use the lessons of financial portfolio management to justify and measure the financial benefits of each application in comparison to the costs of the application's maintenance and operations.

Accounting software application software that records and processes accounting transactions

Accounting software describes a type of application software that records and processes accounting transactions within functional modules such as accounts payable, accounts receivable, journal, general ledger, payroll, and trial balance. It functions as an accounting information system. It may be developed in-house by the organization using it, may be purchased from a third party, or may be a combination of a third-party application software package with local modifications. Accounting software may be on-line based, accessed anywhere at any time with any device which is Internet enabled, or may be desktop based. It varies greatly in its complexity and cost.

An integration competency center (ICC), sometimes referred to as an integration center of excellence (COE), is a shared service function providing methodical data integration, system integration, or enterprise application integration within organizations, particularly large corporations and public sector institutions.

In business, master data management (MDM) is a method used to define and manage the critical data of an organization to provide, with data integration, a single point of reference. The data that is mastered may include reference data- the set of permissible values, and the analytical data that supports decision making.

In information systems, applications architecture or application architecture is one of several architecture domains that form the pillars of an enterprise architecture (EA).

Business process management (BPM) is a discipline in operations management in which people use various methods to discover, model, analyze, measure, improve, optimize, and automate business processes. BPM focuses on improving corporate performance by managing business processes. Any combination of methods used to manage a company's business processes is BPM. Processes can be structured and repeatable or unstructured and variable. Though not required, enabling technologies are often used with BPM.

Collaborative workflow is the convergence of social software with service management (workflow) software. As the definition implies, collaborative workflow is derived from both workflow software and social software such as chat, instant messaging, and document collaboration.

A human resources management system (HRMS) or human resources information system (HRIS) is a form of human resources (HR) software that combines a number of systems and processes to ensure the easy management of human resources, business processes and data. Human resources software is used by businesses to combine a number of necessary HR functions, such as storing employee data, managing payrolls, recruitment processes, benefits administration, and keeping track of attendance records. It ensures everyday human resources processes are manageable and easy to access. It merges human resources as a discipline and, in particular, its basic HR activities and processes with the information technology field, whereas the programming of data processing systems evolved into standardized routines and packages of enterprise resource planning (ERP) software. On the whole, these ERP systems have their origin from software that integrates information from different applications into one universal database. The linkage of its financial and human resource modules through one database is the most important distinction to the individually and proprietarily developed predecessors, which makes this software application both rigid and flexible.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Olson, David L.; Subodh Kesharwani (2010). Enterprise Information Systems: Contemporary Trends and Issues. World Scientific. pp. 2, 13–16. ISBN   9814273163 . Retrieved 20 August 2013.
  2. 1 2 Information Resources Management Association (2010). Enterprise Information Systems: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools and Applications. Idea Group Inc. pp. 38, 43. ISBN   1616928530 . Retrieved 20 August 2013.
  3. Kalinin I.V.; Maharevs E.; Muravyeva-Vitkovskaya L.A. (2015). "ОЦЕНКА ХАРАКТЕРИСТИК ФУНКЦИОНИРОВАНИЯ КОРПОРАТИВНЫХ ИНФОРМАЦИОННЫХ СИСТЕМ С НЕОДНОРОДНОЙ НАГРУЗКОЙ" [Efficiency Evaluation of Enterprise Information Systems with Non-uniform Load]. Scientific and Technical Journal of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics (in Russian). 15 (5): 863–868. doi:10.17586/2226-1494-2015-15-5-863-868.