Fiestas Patrias (Mexico)

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Fiestas Patrias (English: Patriotic Holidays) in Mexico originated in the 19th century and are observed today as five public holidays.

Mexico country in the southern portion of North America

Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.

A public holiday, national holiday or legal holiday is a holiday generally established by law and is usually a non-working day during the year.

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Aniversario de la Constitución

This day (English: "Anniversary of the Constitution") commemorates the Constitution of 1917, promulgated after the Mexican Revolution on February 5. Article 74 of the Mexican federal labor law (Ley Federal del Trabajo) provides that the first Monday of February (regardless of the date) will be an official holiday in Mexico marking this occasion. This was a modification of the law made in 2005, effective since 2006; before that, it was celebrated on February 5 regardless of the day of the week in which the date occurred.

Mexican Revolution major nationwide armed struggle in Mexico between 1910 and 1920

The Mexican Revolution, also known as the Mexican Civil War, was a major armed struggle, lasting roughly from 1910 to 1920, that radically transformed Mexican culture and government. Although recent research has focused on local and regional aspects of the Revolution, it was a genuinely national revolution. Its outbreak in 1910 resulted from the failure of the 35-year-long regime of Porfirio Díaz to find a managed solution to the presidential succession. This meant there was a political crisis among competing elites and the opportunity for agrarian insurrection. Wealthy landowner Francisco I. Madero challenged Díaz in the 1910 presidential election, and following the rigged results, revolted under the Plan of San Luis Potosí. Armed conflict ousted Díaz from power; a new election was held in 1911, bringing Madero to the presidency.

Natalicio de Benito Juárez

This day (English: Birth of Benito Juárez) commemorates President Benito Juárez's birthday on March 21, 1806. Juárez is popularly regarded as an exemplary politician because of his liberal policies that, among other things, defined the traditionally strict separation of the church and the Mexican state. Article 74 of the Mexican labor law (Ley Federal del Trabajo) provides that the third Monday of March (regardless the date) will be an official holiday in Mexico. As with Constitution Day, the holiday was originally celebrated every year on the same date (March 21), but the federal labor law was modified in 2005 so the holiday is always celebrated on a Monday.

Benito Juárez President of Mexico during XIX century

Benito Pablo Juárez García was a Mexican lawyer and president of Mexico, of Zapotec origin from Oaxaca.

Labor Day

Día del Trabajo (English: Labor Day) commemorates the Mexican workers' union movements on May 1 specifically, the 1906 Cananea, Sonora, and the 1907 Río Blanco, Veracruz, labor unrest and repression.

Río Blanco, Veracruz municipality in Veracruz, Mexico

Río Blanco is a municipality located in the montane central zone of the State of Veracruz, about 140 km from the state capital Xalapa. It has an area of 24.68 km2. It is located at 18°50′N97°09′W. The Decree of June 8, 1899 ordained that Tenango's municipal head-board create the municipality of Río Blanco designating it as Tenango de Río Blanco. In the same year French financiers initiated the construction of the largest textile factory in Latin America, which was inaugurated on October 9, 1892 by President Porfirio Díaz. One thousand seven hundred workers came to be employed at Rio Blanco, including only 60 women. See The Years with Laura Diaz by Carlos Fuentes for an account of the role of the Red Brigades at Rio Blanco as a key event in the Mexican Revolution.

Grito de Dolores and Aniversario de la Independencia

Grito de Dolores (on the evening of September 15) and Aniversario de la Independencia (September 16) commemorate Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla's Grito de Dolores on September 16, 1810, in the village of Dolores, near Guanajuato. Hidalgo called for the end of Spanish rule in Mexico. On October 18, 1825, the Republic of Mexico officially declared September 16 its national Independence Day (Dia de la Independencia).

Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Mexican Roman Catholic priest and a leader of the Mexican War of Independence

Don Miguel Gregorio Antonio Francisco Ignacio Hidalgo-Costilla y Gallaga Mandarte Villaseñor; 8 May 1753 – 30 July 1811), more commonly known as Don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla or simply Miguel Hidalgo (Spanish pronunciation: [miˈɣel iˈðalɣo], was a Mexican Roman Catholic priest and a leader of the Mexican War of Independence.

Dolores Hidalgo Municipality in Guanajuato, Mexico

Dolores Hidalgo (in full, Dolores Hidalgo Cuna de la Independencia Nacional is the name of a city and the surrounding municipality in the north-central part of the Mexican state of Guanajuato.

Mexican Independence day, also referred to as Dieciséis de septiembre, is celebrated from the evening of September 15 with a re-creation of the Grito de Dolores by all executive office-holders (from the President of the Republic down to municipal presidents) and lasts through the night.

President of Mexico Head of state of the country of Mexico

The President of Mexico, officially known as the President of the United Mexican States, is the head of state and government of Mexico. Under the Constitution, the president is also the Supreme Commander of the Mexican armed forces. The current President is Andrés Manuel López Obrador, who took office on December 1, 2018.

A presidente municipal is the chief of government of municipios in Mexico. This title was also used in the Philippines under the Spanish and American colonization; it is comparable to a mayor of the town or city. The position is comparable to the county executive of a county in the United States or to the mayor of a city in the United States, although the jurisdiction of a presidente municipal includes not only a city but the municipality surrounding it. Nationally, this position is also equivalent to that of Head of Government of the Federal District and that is why these positions are sometimes referred to as "mayors" in English-language publications.

Aniversario de la Revolución

This day commemorates the Mexican Revolution which started on November 20, 1910 when Francisco I. Madero planned an uprising against dictator Porfirio Díaz's 31-year-long iron rule. Article 74 of the Mexican labor law (Ley Federal del Trabajo) provides that the third Monday of November (regardless the date) will be an official holiday in Mexico. This was a modification of the law made in 2005, effective since 2006; before then, it was November 20 regardless of the day, and all schools gave extended holidays if the day was a Tuesday or Thursday. Although November 20 is the official day, the uprising started on different days in different parts of the country.

Confusion regarding Cinco de mayo

Contrary to common misconception in the U.S., [1] [2] [3] Cinco de mayo is not Mexico's "Independence Day", but rather commemorates an initial victory of Mexican forces over French forces in the Battle of Puebla on May 5, 1862.

In contrast to Independence Day, described above, Cinco de mayo is observed mostly at a local level (Puebla State) and is a minor Bank Holiday in the rest of Mexico. Many labor unions have negotiated to have the day off, however, since its proximity to Labor Day (May 1) often allows an extended five-day weekend or two consecutive three-day weekends.

See also

Related Research Articles

Ignacio Zaragoza Mexican general

Ignacio Zaragoza Seguín was a Mexican general and politician. He led the Mexican army that defeated invading French forces at the Battle of Puebla on May 5, 1862.

Battle of Puebla part of the French intervention in Mexico

The Battle of Puebla took place on 5 May 1862, near Puebla City during the Second French intervention in Mexico. The battle ended in a victory for the Mexican Army over the occupying French soldiers. The French eventually overran the Mexicans in subsequent battles, but the Mexican victory at Puebla against a much better equipped and larger French army provided a significant morale boost to the Mexican army and also helped slow the French army's advance towards Mexico City.

Cry of Dolores

The Cry of Dolores is a historical event that occurred in Dolores, Mexico, in the early morning of 16 September 1810. Roman Catholic priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla rang the bell of his church and gave the pronunciamiento that triggered the Mexican War of Independence.

National day Designated date on which celebrations mark the nationhood of a nation

A national day is a designated date on which celebrations mark the nationhood of a nation or non-sovereign country. This nationhood can be symbolized by the date of independence, of becoming a republic or a significant date for a patron saint or a ruler. Often the day is not called "National Day" but serves and can be considered as one. The national day will often be a national holiday. Many countries have more than one national day.

This is a list of public holidays in Chile; about half of them are Christian holidays.

Mexican War of Independence armed conflict which ended the rule of Spain in the territory of New Spain

The Mexican War of Independence was an armed conflict, and the culmination of a political and social process which ended the rule of Spain in 1821 in the territory of New Spain. The war had its antecedent in Napoleon's French invasion of Spain in 1808; it extended from the Cry of Dolores by Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla on September 16, 1810, to the entrance of the Army of the Three Guarantees led by Agustín de Iturbide to Mexico City on September 27, 1821. September 16 is celebrated as Mexican Independence Day.

In Mexico there are three major kinds of public holidays:

Emancipation Day holiday to celebrate emancipation of enslaved people

Emancipation Day is observed in many former European colonies in the Caribbean and areas of the United States on various dates to commemorate the emancipation of enslaved people of African descent.

Panama's national public holidays are:

Many Mexican fiestas are held in the United States every year. Much of the western United States belonged to Mexico at various times and the descendants of those Mexicans carry on many of their traditional celebrations. These celebrations, called fiestas, are held on any number of religious or civic holidays. Many communities also plan local celebrations throughout the year. Most are held in the Southwest and in Texas and California.

Colombia has 19 holidays, plus Palm and Easter Sunday. The city of Barranquilla has 2 extra holidays celebrating Monday and Tuesday of Carnival.

Jerécuaro municipality in Guanajuato, Mexico

Jerécuaro is a Mexican city located in the lowlands of the state of Guanajuato. The municipality has an area of 828.3 square kilometres and is bordered to the north by Apaseo el Alto, to the east by Coroneo and the state of Querétaro, to the south by Tarandacuao, to the southwest with Acámbaro, and to the northwest with Tarimoro. The municipality had 55,311 inhabitants according to the 2005 census. The municipal president of Jerécuaro and its many smaller outlying communities is C.Jaime García Cardona.

Flag of Mexico flag

The flag of Mexico is a vertical tricolor of green, white, and red with the national coat of arms charged in the center of the white stripe. While the meaning of the colors has changed over time, these three colors were adopted by Mexico following independence from Spain during the country's War of Independence, and subsequent First Mexican Empire. The form of the coat of arms was most recently revised in 1968, but the overall design has been used since 1821, when the First National Flag was created.

Revolution Day (Mexico)

Revolution Day is an official Mexican government holiday, celebrated annually in Mexico on November 20th, marking the start of what became the Mexican Revolution.

Celebration of Mexican political anniversaries in 2010

In 2010, Mexico celebrated both the 200th anniversary of its Independence and 100th anniversary of its Revolution. The entire year was proclaimed by President Felipe Calderón as "Año de la Patria", or "Year of the Nation." 16 September 1810 is the day of the "Grito de Dolores" or Miguel Hidalgo's call to take up arms against the Spanish colonial government. The start of the Mexican Revolution is celebrated as being 20 November 1910, when Francisco "Pancho" Villa and Pascual Orozco led the first insurrectionist attack. Events and other promotions of these celebrations were designed to link of Mexico's identity and historic continuity. During a speech at the inauguration of the Casa de Allende Historic Museum, Felipe Calderón called upon Mexico to use the upcoming anniversaries to reflect on where the country has been and to think about what kind of Mexico descendants will inherit in the future. He said the vision of the insurgents of the War of Independence was forward, not backward, so every celebration of these past events must consider the future as well.

Cinco de Mayo annual celebration held on May 5

Cinco de Mayo is an annual celebration held on May 5. The date is observed to commemorate the Mexican Army's victory over the French Empire at the Battle of Puebla, on May 5, 1862, under the leadership of General Ignacio Zaragoza.

Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States of 1857 constitution

The Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States of 1857 often called simply the Constitution of 1857 is the liberal constitution drafted by 1857 Constituent Congress of Mexico during the presidency of Ignacio Comonfort. It was ratified on February 5, 1857, establishing individual rights such as freedom of speech; freedom of conscience; freedom of the press; freedom of assembly; and the right to bear arms. It also reaffirmed the abolition of slavery, eliminated debtor prison, and eliminated all forms of cruel and unusual punishment, including the death penalty.

First National Government public holiday of Argentina

The Anniversary of the First National Government is a public holiday of Argentina, commemorating the May Revolution and the creation on May 25, 1810 of the Primera Junta, which is considered the first patriotic government of Argentina. Along with the 9 July, which commemorates the Declaration of Independence, it is considered a National Day of Argentina.

Labor Day in Spain, known there as Día del Trabajador or Primero de Mayo, was first celebrated on May 1, 1889. The way in which Spaniards celebrate Primero de Mayo has varied greatly since then, due primarily to the Francoist State, which lasted from 1936 to 1975. After 4 decades of being prohibited, in 1978 the celebration was finally re-legalized and re-instated as a national holiday, and since then every Primero de Mayo has been marked by protests and manifestations all over the country, in which social advances are celebrated and workers’ rights are revindicated.

References

  1. Lauren Effron (2010-05-10). "Cinco de Mayo:NOT Mexico's Independence Day". Discovery News. Retrieved 2010-09-16. Contrary to popular belief, Cinco de Mayo is not the celebration of Mexico's independence day.
  2. Julia Leyton (2003-04-26). "How Cinco de Mayo Works". HowStuffWorks.com. Retrieved 2010-09-16. Lots of us have heard of the Mexican holiday Cinco de Mayo, but not everyone knows what it celebrates. It is not, as some believe, Mexico's Independence Day.
  3. "Cinco de Mayo, Mexican Independence Day, Sombrero, Fiesta coloring page" . Retrieved 2010-09-16. Get ready for the Fiesta! Print out our original coloring page for your Cinco de Mayo (also known as Mexican Independence Day) celebration and color the Mexican flag, a sombrero, maracas, a pinata and more!