Francis Arthur Sutton

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Major General Francis "Frank" Arthur Sutton M.C. (born England 14 February 1884, died Hong Kong 22 October 1944) was an English adventurer known as "One Arm Sutton" after losing part of an arm by a hand grenade at the Battle of Gallipoli where he was awarded the Military Cross. [1] [2]

Military Cross third-level military decoration of the British Armed Forces, Commonwealth officers

The Military Cross (MC) is the third-level military decoration awarded to officers and other ranks of the British Armed Forces, and formerly awarded to officers of other Commonwealth countries.

Hong Kong East Asian city

Hong Kong, officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China and commonly abbreviated as HK, is a special administrative region on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With over 7.4 million people of various nationalities in a 1,104-square-kilometre (426 sq mi) territory, Hong Kong is the world's fourth most densely populated region.

A product of Eton College, Sutton studied two years of engineering at University of London before working in civil engineering in Argentina, Mexico, and the US after 1906.

Sutton held a commission in the Royal Engineers [3] during World War I. Following the war he built railways in Mexico and Argentina and also mined for gold in Siberia and Korea.

Royal Engineers corps of the British Army

The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers (RE), and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army.

Sutton travelled to China where he had purchased manufacturing rights for the Stokes Mortar that he provided to various warlords. [4] He became a major general for the Chinese warlord Zhang Zuolin.

Warlord person who has both military and civil control and power

A warlord is a leader able to exercise military, economic, and political control over a subnational territory within a sovereign state due to their ability to mobilize loyal armed forces. These armed forces, usually considered militias, are loyal to the warlord rather than to the state regime. Warlords have existed throughout much of history, albeit in a variety of different capacities within the political, economic, and social structure of states or ungoverned territories.

Zhang Zuolin Taiwanese warlord and politician

Zhang Zuolin was the warlord of Manchuria from 1916–28, during the Warlord Era in China. He successfully invaded China proper in October 1924 in the Second Zhili-Fengtian War. He gained control of Peking (Beijing), including China's internationally recognized government, in April 1926. The economy of Manchuria, the basis of Zhang's power, was overtaxed by his adventurism and collapsed in the winter of 1927–28. He was defeated by the National Revolutionary Army of the Nationalist Party of China under Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek in May 1928. He was killed by a bomb planted by a Japanese Kwantung Army officer on 4 June 1928. Although Zhang had been Japan's proxy in China, Japanese militarists were infuriated by his failure to stop the advance of the Nationalists.

During World War II he was interned in Hong Kong where he died of dysentery. [5] [6] [7]

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Dysentery inflammation of the intestine causing diarrhea with blood

Dysentery is an inflammatory disease of the intestine, especially of the colon, which always results in severe diarrhea and abdominal pains. Other symptoms may include fever and a feeling of incomplete defecation. The disease is caused by several types of infectious pathogens such as bacteria, viruses and parasites.

Notes

  1. "No. 29240". The London Gazette (Supplement). 23 July 1915. p. 7283.
  2. "One-Arm Sutton". Western Mail . 7 Sep 1933. p. 12 via Trove.
  3. "WAR PENSION (LIEUT. F. A. SUTTON). (Hansard, 8 March 1927)". hansard.millbanksystems.com.
  4. Jowett, Philip China's Wars: Rousing the Dragon 1894–1949 Osprey Publishing, 20 Nov 2013, p. 130
  5. Evans, Brian L. "Francis Arthur Sutton". thecanadianencyclopedia.ca.
  6. Graham Lees (February 19–20, 2005). "Man with a past". Weekend Standard. Archived from the original on 5 March 2005. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  7. "Casualty". www.cwgc.org.

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