Friedrich Paschen

Last updated
Friedrich Paschen
Friedrich Paschen Physiker.jpg
Born(1865-01-22)22 January 1865
Died25 February 1947(1947-02-25) (aged 82)
Known for Paschen–Back effect
Paschen series
Paschen's law
Awards Rumford Medal (1928)

Louis Carl Heinrich Friedrich Paschen (22 January 1865 - 25 February 1947), was a German physicist, known for his work on electrical discharges. He is also known for the Paschen series, a series of hydrogen spectral lines in the infrared region that he first observed in 1908. He established the now widely used Paschen curve in his article "Über die zum Funkenübergang in Luft, Wasserstoff und Kohlensäure bei verschiedenen Drücken erforderliche Potentialdifferenz". [1] He is known for the Paschen-Back effect, which is the Zeeman effect's becoming non-linear at high magnetic field. He helped explain the hollow cathode effect in 1916. [2]

Contents

Life

Paschen was born in Schwerin, Mecklenburg-Schwerin. From 1884 to 1888 he studied at the universities of Berlin and Strassburg, after which he became an assistant at the Academy of Münster. He became a professor at the Technical Academy of Hannover in 1893 and professor of physics at the University of Tübingen in 1901. He served as president of the Physikalisch-Technischen Reichsanstalt from 1924–33 and an honorary professor of the University of Berlin in 1925.

During the second world war he had the Chinese scientist He Zehui to stay at his house and she became like a daughter to him. With his help she was introduced to Walther Bothe who led the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Heidelberg. [3]

Paschen taught in Berlin until his death in Potsdam in 1947. [4]

See also

Related Research Articles

Heinrich Hertz German physicist, namesake of the SI unit of frequency

Heinrich Rudolf Hertz was a German physicist who first conclusively proved the existence of the electromagnetic waves predicted by James Clerk Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism. The unit of frequency, cycle per second, was named the "hertz" in his honor.

Wilhelm Wien German physicist

Wilhelm Carl Werner Otto Fritz Franz Wien was a German physicist who, in 1893, used theories about heat and electromagnetism to deduce Wien's displacement law, which calculates the emission of a blackbody at any temperature from the emission at any one reference temperature.

Rudolf Clausius German mathematical physicist

Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius was a German physicist and mathematician and is considered one of the central founders of the science of thermodynamics. By his restatement of Sadi Carnot's principle known as the Carnot cycle, he gave the theory of heat a truer and sounder basis. His most important paper, "On the Moving Force of Heat", published in 1850, first stated the basic ideas of the second law of thermodynamics. In 1865 he introduced the concept of entropy. In 1870 he introduced the virial theorem, which applied to heat.

Heinrich Gustav Magnus German chemist and physicist (1802–1870)

Heinrich Gustav Magnus was a notable German experimental scientist. His training was mostly in chemistry but his later research was mostly in physics. He spent the great bulk of his career at the University of Berlin, where he is remembered for his laboratory teaching as much as for his original research. He did not use his first given name, and was known throughout his life as Gustav Magnus.

Paschens law Physical law about electrical discharge in gases

Paschen's law is an equation that gives the breakdown voltage, that is, the voltage necessary to start a discharge or electric arc, between two electrodes in a gas as a function of pressure and gap length. It is named after Friedrich Paschen who discovered it empirically in 1889.

<i>Annalen der Physik</i> Academic journal

Annalen der Physik is one of the oldest scientific journals on physics; it has been published since 1799. The journal publishes original, peer-reviewed papers on experimental, theoretical, applied, and mathematical physics and related areas. The editor-in-chief is Stefan Hildebrandt. Prior to 2008, its ISO 4 abbreviation was Ann. Phys. (Leipzig), after 2008 it became Ann. Phys. (Berl.).

Knut Ångström Swedish physicist

Knut Johan Ångström was a Swedish physicist. He was the son of physicist Anders Jonas Ångström and studied in Uppsala from 1877 to 1884, when he received his licentiat-degree, before going for a short time to the University of Strassburg (Strasbourg) to study with August Kundt. Coming back to Uppsala, he completed his doctoral degree and was appointed lecturer in physics at the new university college in Stockholm in 1885. After a few years working there, he returned to Uppsala in 1891 and received the professorship of Physics in 1896.

Born rigidity is a concept in special relativity. It is one answer to the question of what, in special relativity, corresponds to the rigid body of non-relativistic classical mechanics.

Hydrogen spectral series Important atomic emission spectra

The emission spectrum of atomic hydrogen has been divided into a number of spectral series, with wavelengths given by the Rydberg formula. These observed spectral lines are due to the electron making transitions between two energy levels in an atom. The classification of the series by the Rydberg formula was important in the development of quantum mechanics. The spectral series are important in astronomical spectroscopy for detecting the presence of hydrogen and calculating red shifts.

Kaufmann–Bucherer–Neumann experiments

The Kaufmann–Bucherer–Neumann experiments measured the dependence of the inertial mass of an object on its velocity. The historical importance of this series of experiments performed by various physicists between 1901 and 1915 is due to the results being used to test the predictions of special relativity. The developing precision and data analysis of these experiments and the resulting influence on theoretical physics during those years is still a topic of active historical discussion, since the early experimental results at first contradicted Einstein's then newly published theory, but later versions of this experiment confirmed it. For modern experiments of that kind, see Tests of relativistic energy and momentum, for general information see Tests of special relativity.

Gustav Herglotz German mathematician

Gustav Herglotz was a German Bohemian physicist. He is best known for his works on the theory of relativity and seismology.

Karl Meissner German-American physicist

Karl Wilhelm Meissner was a German-American physicist specializing in hyperfine spectroscopy. He spent the greater part of his career in the United States at Purdue University, in West Lafayette, Indiana.

Jakob Johann Laub was a physicist from Austria-Hungary, who is best known for his work with Albert Einstein in the early period of special relativity.

Alfred Bucherer German physicist

Alfred Heinrich Bucherer was a German physicist, who is known for his experiments on relativistic mass. He also was the first who used the phrase "theory of relativity" for Einstein's theory of special relativity.

Paul Gerber was a German physics teacher. He studied in Berlin from 1872-1875. In 1877 he became a teacher at the Realgymnasium in Stargard in Pommern. Gerber is known for his controversial work on the speed of gravity and the perihelion shift of Mercury's orbit.

Vladimir Ignatowski

Vladimir Sergeyevitch Ignatowski, or Waldemar Sergius von Ignatowsky and similar names in other publications, was a Russian physicist.

Otto Wiener (physicist)

Otto Heinrich Wiener was a German physicist.

Eduard Rüchardt was a German physicist. In modern times Rüchardt is mainly noted for the experiment named after him. However, Rüchardt's chief topic was the study of canal rays. This work started under the supervision of Wilhelm Wien and continued later in collaborations with Walther Gerlach.

Hermann Fritz Gustav Goos was a German physicist and astronomer.

The hollow cathode effect allows electrical conduction at a lower voltage or with more current in a cold-cathode gas-discharge lamp when the cathode is a conductive tube open at one end than a similar lamp with a flat cathode. The hollow cathode effect was recognized by Friedrich Paschen in 1916.

References

  1. Friedrich Paschen (1889). "Ueber die zum Funkenübergang in Luft, Wasserstoff und Kohlensäure bei verschiedenen Drucken erforderliche Potentialdifferenz". Annalen der Physik. 273 (5): 69–75. Bibcode:1889AnP...273...69P. doi:10.1002/andp.18892730505. hdl: 2027/uc1.$b624756 .
  2. Paschen, F. (1916). "Bohrs Heliumlinien". Annalen der Physik. 355 (16): 901–940. Bibcode:1916AnP...355..901P. doi:10.1002/andp.19163551603. ISSN   0003-3804.
  3. Zehui He: following a different road, Cern Courier, 2011, retrieved Bebruary 2015
  4. "Paschen, Louis Carl Heinrich Friedrich. Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 2008". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 21 May 2018. <http://www.encyclopedia.com>