|Former Borough constituency |
for the House of Commons
|Number of members||Two|
|Replaced by||East Surrey|
Gatton was a parliamentary borough in Surrey, one of the most notorious of all the rotten boroughs. It elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons from 1450 until 1832, when the constituency was abolished by the Great Reform Act.Around the time of that Act it was often held up by reformers as the epitome of what was wrong with the unreformed system.
Surrey is a county in South East England which borders Kent to the east, West Sussex to the south, Hampshire to the west, Berkshire to the north-west, and Greater London to the north-east.
The borough consisted of part of the parish of Gatton, near Reigate, between London and Brighton. It included the manor and estate of Gatton Park. Gatton was no more than a village, with a population in 1831 of 146, and 23 houses of which as few as six may have been within the borough.
Gatton was a former village and borough in Surrey, England, and an ancient parish. It survives as a sparsely populated, predominantly rural locality, which includes Gatton Park, no more than 12 houses, and two farms on the slopes of the North Downs near Reigate.
Reigate is a town of over 20,000 inhabitants in eastern Surrey, England. It is in the London commuter belt and one of three towns in the borough of Reigate and Banstead. It is sited at the foot of the North Downs and extends over part of the Greensand Ridge. Reigate has a medieval castle and has been a market town since the medieval period, when it also became a parliamentary borough.
London is the capital of and largest city in England and the United Kingdom, with the largest municipal population in the European Union. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.
The right to vote was extended to all freeholders and inhabitants paying scot and lot; but this apparently wide franchise was normally meaningless in tiny Gatton: there were only 7 qualified voters in 1831, and the number had sometimes fallen as low as two. This position had existed long before the 19th century: Gatton was one of the first of the English boroughs to come under the total dominance of a "patron": in the reign of Henry VIII, when Gatton's representation was only a century old, Sir Roger Copley described himself as "its burgess and only inhabitant". In these circumstances, the local landowners had no difficulty in maintaining absolute control, and for most of the 16th century it was the Copleys who held this power. However, the Copleys were Roman Catholics, and this caused difficulties in the later Elizabethan period: the head of the family, Thomas Copley, went into voluntary exile abroad, and when his wife and child returned to England after his death she was soon caught harbouring a Catholic priest. The Sheriff and Deputy Lieutenants of Surrey were directed by the Privy Council to ensure that Gatton made its choice free from any influence by Mrs Copley; the sheriff's precept for the election was directed not to the Lord of the Manor but to the parish constable; and it seems that between 1584 and 1621 the humble villagers of Gatton may have genuinely elected their MPs in their own right.
Scot and lot is a phrase common in the records of English medieval boroughs, referring to local rights and obligations.
Henry VIII was King of England from 1509 until his death in 1547. He was the second Tudor monarch, succeeding his father Henry VII. Henry is best known for his six marriages, in particular his efforts to have his first marriage annulled. His disagreement with the Pope on the question of such an annulment led Henry to initiate the English Reformation, separating the Church of England from papal authority. He appointed himself the Supreme Head of the Church of England and dissolved convents and monasteries, for which he was excommunicated. Henry is also known as "the father of the Royal Navy"; he invested heavily in the Navy, increasing its size greatly from a few to more than 50 ships.
A sheriff is a government official, with varying duties, existing in some countries with historical ties to England, where the office originated. There is an analogous although independently developed office in Iceland that is commonly translated to English as sheriff, and this is discussed below.
In the 1750s, Sir James Colebrooke (Lord of the Manor of Gatton) nominated for one seat and the Rev John Tattersall (Lord of the Manor of nearby Upper Gatton) the other. In 1774, Sir William Mayne (later Lord Newhaven) bought both manors and therefore control of both seats; from 1786 onwards they changed hands several times more, ending in the hands of Sir Mark Wood by the turn of the century. The borough was sold again in 1830, at a reported price of £180,000, despite the prospect of disenfranchisement; in the same year, while the ownership of the borough was under the administration of a broker, one of its seats in the new Parliament was sold for £1,200.
William Mayne, 1st Baron Newhaven PC, known as Sir William Mayne, Bt, between 1763 and 1776, was a British merchant and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1774 to 1790.
Sir Mark Wood, 1st Baronet was a British army officer and engineer. He was a Member of Parliament (MP) for Milborne Port, Gatton and Newark. He received a baronetcy on 3 October 1808.
Even though Gatton elections were entirely in the hands of the Lord of the Manor, there was a contested election in a by-election on 24 January 1803. James Dashwood, one of the sitting Members, was persuaded to resign to allow Philip Dundas (nephew of Pitt's ally Henry Dundas) to take a seat in Parliament. However, Joseph Clayton Jennings, a barrister who supported Parliamentary reform, arrived to contest the election together with a group of radical supporters. Jennings obtained one vote from a man claiming to be entitled to vote, but Dashwood (who was acting as returning officer on the occasion) rejected it; hence Dundas was returned by 1 vote to nil.
The Gatton by-election, 1803 was a by-election to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom that took place on 24 January 1803.
Henry Dundas, 1st Viscount Melville, PC, FRSE was a Scottish advocate and Tory politician. He was the first Secretary of State for War and became, in 1806, the last person to be impeached in the United Kingdom, for misappropriation of public money. Although acquitted, he never held public office again. He is the only person ever accused of such a serious crime to later have a public statue erected to his memory.
A garbled version of the 1803 byelection was included by Henry Stooks Smith in The Parliaments of England from 1715 to 1847, as the supposed story of a byelection in 1816, at which Sir Mark Wood, 2nd Baronet was returned. Stooks Smith wrote:
Mr Jennings was Sir Mark Wood's butler. There were only three voters, Sir Mark, his son, and Jennings. The son was away and Jennings and his master quarrelled upon which Jennings refused to second the son and proposed himself. To get a seconder for the son, Sir Mark had to second Jennings, and it was ultimately arranged, and the vote of Sir Mark alone given. This was the only contest within memory.
The History of Parliament notes that this story "has not been confirmed".Gatton's representation was abolished by the Reform Act in 1832.
|Parliament||First member||Second member|
|1510–1523||No names known|
|1529||John Guildford||?William Saunders|
|1542||Thomas Saunders||Thomas Bishop|
|1545||Edward Bellingham||Roger Heigham|
|1547||Richard Shelley|| John Tingleden, died |
and replaced by Jan 1552 by Thomas Guildford
|1553 (Mar)||Richard Southwell alias Darcy||Leonard Dannett|
|1553 (Oct)||Sir Thomas Cornwallis||Chidiock Paulet|
|1554 (Apr)||Thomas Gatacre||Thomas Copley|
|1554 (Nov)||William Wootton||Thomas Copley|
|1555||Humphrey Moseley||Sir Henry Hussey|
|1558||Thomas Copley||Thomas Norton|
|1558/9||Thomas Copley||Thomas Farnham|
|1562/3||Sir Robert Lane||Thomas Copley|
|1571||Edmund Slyfield||Edward Whitton|
|1572||Edmund Tilney||Roland Maylard|
|1584|| Francis Bacon, sat for Melcombe Regis |
and replaced by Edward Browne
|1586||Serjeant John Puckering||Edward Browne|
|1588||Richard Browne||John Herbert|
|1593||William Lane||George Buc|
|1597||George Buc||Michael Hicks|
|1601||Sir Matthew Browne||Richard Sondes|
|1604–1611||Sir Thomas Gresham||Sir Nicholas Saunders|
|1614||Sir Thomas Gresham||Sir John Brooke|
|1621||Sir Thomas Gresham||Sir Thomas Bludder|
|1624||Sir Edmund Bowyer||Samuel Owfield|
|1625||Sir Charles Howard||Thomas Crewe|
|1626||Sir Samuel Owfield||Sir Charles Howard|
|1628||Sir Samuel Owfield||Sir Charles Howard|
|1629–1640||No Parliaments summoned|
|Year||First member||First party||Second member||Second party|
|November 1640||Sir Samuel Owfield||Parliamentarian||Double return for second seat, not resolved until 1641|
|November 1641||Thomas Sandys||Parliamentarian|
|1644||Owfield died – seat left vacant|
|December 1648||Sandys and Owfield excluded in Pride's Purge – both seats vacant|
|1653||Gatton was unrepresented in the Barebones Parliament and the First and Second Parliaments of the Protectorate|
|January 1659||Edward Bishe||Thomas Turgis|
|May 1659||Not represented in the restored Rump|
|April 1660||Sir Edmund Bowyer||Thomas Turgis|
|1664||Sir Nicholas Carew|
|1685||Sir John Thompson, Bt|
|1698||Hon. Maurice Thompson|
|1705||Sir George Newland||Paul Docminique|
|1738||Professor George Newland|
|1751||(Sir) James Colebrooke|
|1761||Lieutenant-Colonel Edward Harvey|
|1768||Hon. John Damer||Joseph Martin|
|October 1774||Sir William Mayne||Robert Scott|
|December 1774||Robert Mayne||William Adam|
|1780||The Lord Newhaven|
|1790||John Nesbitt||William Currie|
|May 1796||John Petrie||Sir Gilbert Heathcote, Bt|
|November 1796||John Heathcote|
|1799||(Sir) Walter Stirling|
|1800||James Du Pre|
|1802||Sir Mark Wood, Bt||James Dashwood|
|1806||James Athol Wood|
|1807||George Bellas Greenough|
|1816||Sir Mark Wood, Bt||Tory|
|1818||Abel Rous Dottin||John Fleming|
|1820||Jesse Watts-Russell||Thomas Divett|
|1826||William Scott||Michael Prendergast|
|Mar 1830||Joseph Neeld|
|July 1830||John Shelley||John Thomas Hope||Tory|
|1831||Viscount Pollington||Anthony John Ashley|
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