Goby is a common name for many species of small to medium sized ray-finned fish, normally with large heads and tapered bodies, which are found in marine, brackish and freshwater environments. Traditionally most of the species called gobies have been classified in the order Perciformes as the suborder Gobioidei but in the 5th Edition of Fishes of the World this suborder is elevated to an order Gobiiformes within the clade Percomorpha.Not all the species in the Gobiiformes are referred to as gobies and the "true gobies" are placed in the family Gobiidae, while other species referred to as gobies have been placed in the Oxudercidae. Goby is also used to describe some species which are not classified within the order Gobiiformes, such as the engineer goby or convict blenny Pholidichthys leucotaenia . The word goby derives from the Latin gobius meaning "gudgeon", and some species of goby, especially the sleeper gobies in the family Eleotridae and some of the dartfishes are called "gudgeons", especially in Australia. Also gobys = goblins
Ophidiiformes is an order of ray-finned fish that includes the cusk-eels, pearlfishes, viviparous brotulas, and others. Members of this order have small heads and long slender bodies. They have either smooth scales or no scales, a long dorsal fin and an anal fin that typically runs into the caudal fin. They mostly come from the tropics and subtropics, and live in both freshwater and marine habitats, including abyssal depths. They have adopted a range of feeding methods and lifestyles, including parasitism. The majority are egg-laying, but some are viviparous.
Gobiidae is a family of bony fish in the order Gobiiformes, one of the largest fish families comprising more than 2,000 species in more than 200 genera, sometimes referred to as the "true gobies". Most of them are relatively small, typically less than 10 cm (3.9 in) in length. The Gobiidae includes some of the smallest vertebrates in the world, such as Trimmatom nanus and Pandaka pygmaea, Trimmatom nanus are under 1 cm long when fully grown, then Pandaka pygmaea standard length are 9mm (0.35 in),maximum known standard length are 11 mm (0.43 in). Some large gobies can reach over 30 cm (0.98 ft) in length, but that is exceptional. Generally, they are benthic, or bottom-dwellers. Although few are important as food for humans, they are of great significance as prey species for commercially important fish such as cod, haddock, sea bass, and flatfish. Several gobiids are also of interest as aquarium fish, such as the dartfish of the genus Ptereleotris. Phylogenetic relationships of gobiids have been studied using molecular data.
Blenny is a common name for a type of fish. The term is ambiguous, having been applied to several families of percomorph marine, brackish, and some freshwater fish sharing similar morphology and behaviour. Six families are considered "true blennies", all grouped together under the order Blenniiformes; its members are referred to as blenniiformids. About 151 genera and nearly 900 species have been described within the order. The order was formerly classified as a suborder of the Perciformes but the 5th Edition of Fishes of the World divided the Perciformes into a number of new orders and the Blenniiformes were placed in the percomorph clade Ovalentaria alongside the such taxa as Cichliformes, Mugiliformes and Gobiesociformes.
Eleotridae is a family of fish commonly known as sleeper gobies, with about 34 genera and 180 species. Most species are found in the tropical Indo-Pacific region, but there are also species in subtropical and temperate regions, warmer parts of the Americas and near the Atlantic coast in Africa. While many eleotrids pass through a planktonic stage in the sea and some spend their entire lives in the sea; as adults, the majority live in freshwater streams and brackish water. One of its genera, Caecieleotris, is troglobitic. They are especially important as predators in the freshwater stream ecosystems on oceanic islands such as New Zealand and Hawaii that otherwise lack the predatory fish families typical of nearby continents, such as catfish. Anatomically, they are similar to the gobies (Gobiidae), though unlike the majority of gobies, they do not have a pelvic sucker.
Butis butis, the crazy fish, duckbill sleeper, or upside-down sleeper, is a species of sleeper goby that are native to brackish and freshwater coastal habitats of the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific Ocean from the African coast to the islands of Fiji. They prefer well-vegetated waters and can frequently be found in mangrove swamps. They are small, drably-colored fish, reaching a maximum length of only 15 cm (5.9 in). They are predatory and are known for their behavior of swimming vertically – or even upside down – while hunting.
Gobius is a genus of fish in the family Gobiidae native to fresh, brackish and marine waters of and around Europe, Africa and Asia. It contains the typical gobies, being the type genus of the formerly recognised subfamily Gobiinae and family and the namesake genus of its order Gobiiformes.
Padogobius bonelli, the Padanian goby, is a species of true goby from the family Gobiidae native to rivers of Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, and Switzerland, where it is usually found in areas with gravel substrates or dense vegetation along the edges. Males of this species can reach a length of 8.6 centimetres (3.4 in) TL while females only reach 7.5 centimetres (3.0 in) TL. This species' specific name honours the Italian naturalist Franco Andrea Bonelli (1784-1830), who had originally described this species as Gobius fluviatilis without realizing that this name was already being used for a different goby species, the monkey goby, which had been described by Pallas in 1814.
The Gobiiformes are an order of fish that includes the gobies and their relatives. The order, which was previously considered a suborder of Perciformes, is made up of about 2,211 species that are divided between seven families. Phylogenetic relationships of the Gobiiformes have been elucidated using molecular data. Gobiiforms are primarily small species that live in marine water, but roughly 10% of these species inhabit fresh water. This order is composed chiefly of benthic or burrowing species; like many other benthic fishes, most gobiiforms do not have a gas bladder or any other means of controlling their buoyancy in water, so they must spend most of their time on or near the bottom. Gobiiformes means "Goby-like".
Schindleria praematura, Schindler's fish is a species of neotenic goby which was formerly placed in the monogeneric family Schindleriidae but which is currently classified within the Gobiidae. It is associated with reefs and has an Indo-Pacific distribution from South Africa and Madagascar to Hawaii and the sea mounts of the South Pacific. The generic name and the common name honour the German zoologist Otto Schindler (1906–1959) who described the species.
Gobius roulei, Roule's goby, is a species of goby native to the eastern Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea where it can be found at depths of from 320 to 385 metres. This species can reach a length of 8 centimetres (3.1 in) TL. The specific name honours the French zoologist Louis Roule (1861-1942) who was the collector of the type.
Couch's goby is a species of goby native to the northeastern Atlantic Ocean as far north as southern Great Britain and Ireland, the Mediterranean Sea and the Adriatic Sea where it can be found living under stones on muddy sand in inshore waters and in the intertidal zone. This species can reach a length of 7.7 centimetres (3.0 in) TL. The specific name and common name both honour Jonathan Couch (1789-1870), the Cornish ichthyologist and the author of A History of the Fishes of the British Islands published between 1862 and 1867.
Gobius scorteccii is a species of freshwater goby native to Somalia, Africa. This species can reach a length of 13.6 centimetres (5.4 in) TL. The specific name honours the Italian herpetologist Giuseppe Scortecci (1898-1973) of the University of Genoa, who was the collector of the type.
Gobius senegambiensis is a species of marine fish from the family Gobiidae, the true gobies. It is native to the Atlantic Ocean from Morocco to Angola as well as the islands in the Gulf of Guinea. It is found in inshore waters on sandy bottoms. This species can reach a length of 7.3 centimetres (2.9 in) SL.
Dorothea's wriggler, Allomicrodesmus dorotheae, is a species of fish in the monotypic genus Allomicrodesmus which is regarded by some authorities as being in the family Xenisthmidae, the wriggler family, but in the 5th edition of Fishes of the World this is treated as a synonym of the family Eleotridae, sleeper gobies. It is 5 cm (2.0 in) in length. It is known from just two specimens, one from the Great Barrier Reef and the other from the Marshall Islands. It has been collected from a depth of around 10 m (33 ft) in a channel in a reef. The specific name honours Dorothea Bowers Schultz, the wife of Leonard Peter Schultz, who illustrated the monograph in which this species is described, although not this species.
Didogobius is a genus of small marine fish in the family Gobiidae, the true gobies. They are native to the eastern Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. The name of the genus is a compound noun made up of Dido, the mythical founder and first queen of Carthage, and the Latin gobius meaning "goby".
Crystallogobius linearis, the crystal goby, is a species of goby native to the Atlantic coasts of Europe and the Mediterranean Sea where it can be found at depths of from 1 to 400 metres. Males of this species grow to a length of 4.7 centimetres (1.9 in) SL while females only reach 3.9 centimetres (1.5 in) SL. This species is the only known member of its genus. The name Crystallogobius comes from the Latin words cristallum, meaning "crystal", and gobius, meaning gudgeon.
Butidae is a family of sleeper gobies in the order Gobiiformes. The family was formerly classified as a subfamily of the Eleotridae but the 5th Edition of Fishes of the World classifies it as a family in its own right. Molecular phylogenetic analyses have demonstrated that the Butidae are a sister clade to the clade containing the families Gobiidae and Gobionellidae and that the Eleotridae is a sister to both of these clades. This means that the Eloetridae as formerly classified was paraphyletic and that its subfamilies should be raised to the status of families.
Milyeringidae, the blind cave gobies, is a small family of gobies, in the order Gobiiformes. There are two genera and six species within the family, which is considered to be a subfamily of the Eleotridae by some authorities. Milyeringidae includes one genus (Milyeringa) restricted to caves in the North West Cape region of Australia and the other (Typhleotris) to underground water systems in Madagascar. They are all troglobitic species and have lost their eyes.
Palatogobius grandoculus is a species of marine fish in the family Gobiidae and the order Gobiiformes. Its name comes from the Latin word palatum (palate) which pertains to palate and its teeth which form there, plus the Latin word gobius, which means goby. The species name grandoculus refers to this species' very large eyes. Specimens of P. grandoculus were collected as early as 1976, and originally described as the Mauve Goby, however it was not formally identified as a separate species and described until 2002.
Ophiogobius jenynsi is a species of ray-finned fish from the biology Gobiidae, the true gobies. It is a demersal, marine species which is found off the coast of Chile in the intertidal zone. It feeds mainly on crustaceans. This species was originally named as Gobius ophicephalus by Leonard Jenyns in 1842, subsequently misspelt as ophiocephalus, but this name was preoccupied by Pallas's 1811 Gobius ophiocephalus, Hoese renamed the species in honour of Jenyns in 1976. This is the only species in its genus.