|Family:|| Oxudercidae |
Oxudercidae is a family of gobies which consists of four subfamilies which were formerly classified under the family Gobiidae. The family is sometimes called the Gobionellidae, but Oxudercidae has priority. The species in this family have a cosmopolitan distribution in temperate and tropical areas and are found in marine and freshwater environments, typically in inshore, euryhaline areas with silt and sand substrates.
The Oxudercidae includes 86 genera, which contain around 600 species. This family has many species which occur in fresh water, and a number of species found on wet beaches and are able to live for a number of days out of water. The family includes the mudskippers, which include species that are able to move over land with quite quickly. They have eyes located on the top of their heads on short stalks. They are capable of elevating or retracting them, and they can see well out of water. One species, Gillichthys mirabilis , usually stays in the water, but surfaces to gulp air when the oxygen levels in the water are low; it holds the air in its buccopharynx, which is highly vacularised to facilitate respiratory exchange.
These subfamilies are included in the Oxudercidae:
The Serranidae are a large family of fishes belonging to the order Perciformes. The family contains about 450 species in 65 genera, including the sea basses and the groupers. Although many species are small, in some cases less than 10 cm (3.9 in), the giant grouper is one of the largest bony fishes in the world, growing to 2.7 m in length and 400 kg (880 lb) in weight. Representatives of this group live in tropical and subtropical seas worldwide.
Groupers are fish of any of a number of genera in the subfamily Epinephelinae of the family Serranidae, in the order Perciformes.
Eleotridae is a family of fish commonly known as sleeper gobies, with about 34 genera and 180 species. Most species are found in the tropical Indo-Pacific region, but there are also species in subtropical and temperate regions, warmer parts of the Americas and near the Atlantic coast in Africa. While many eleotrids pass through a planktonic stage in the sea and some spend their entire lives in the sea; as adults, the majority live in freshwater streams and brackish water. One of its genera, Caecieleotris, is troglobitic. They are especially important as predators in the freshwater stream ecosystems on oceanic islands such as New Zealand and Hawaii that otherwise lack the predatory fish families typical of nearby continents, such as catfish. Anatomically, they are similar to the gobies (Gobiidae), though unlike the majority of gobies, they do not have a pelvic sucker.
Anthias are members of the family Serranidae and make up the subfamily Anthiinae. Anthias make up a sizeable portion of the population of pink, orange, and yellow reef fishes seen swarming in most coral reef photography and film. The name Anthiidae is preoccupied by a subfamily of ground beetles in the family Carabidae created by Bonelli in 1813 and this grouping should be called the Anthiadinae. However, both the 5th Edition of Fishes of the World and Fishbase give the Serranid subfamily as "Anthiinae".
Mudskippers are amphibious fish. They are of the family Oxudercidae and the subfamily Oxudercinae. There are 32 living species of mudskipper. They are known for their unusual appearance and their ability to survive both in and out of water. They can grow up to 30 centimetres (12 in) long and most are a brownish green colour that range anywhere from dark to light. During mating season the males will also develop brightly coloured spots in order to attract females. The spots can be red, green and even blue. A mudskipper's eyes protrude from the tops of its flat head. Their most noticeable feature however is their side pectoral fins that are located more forward and under their elongated body. These fins function similarly to legs in that they allow the mudskipper to move from place to place. Although having the typical appearance of any other fish, these forward fins allow the mudskipper to “skip” across muddy surfaces and even give them the ability to climb trees and low branches. Because of these fins, mudskippers have also been found to be able to leap distances of up to two feet.
The longfins, also known as roundheads or spiny basslets, are a family, Plesiopidae, which were formerly placed in the order Perciformes but are now regarded as being incertae sedis in the subseries Ovalentaria in the clade Percomorpha. They are elongated fishes, found in the Indian Ocean and western Pacific Ocean.
The sandperches are a family, Pinguipedidae, of fishes in the percomorph order Trachiniformes. Sandperches are benthic fish which normally occur over sand or rubble substrates in shallow seas. They are found off the coasts of South America, South Africa and in the Indo-Pacific as far east as Japan. The family contains a few species which are used by humans for food.
Trachiniformes is an order of percomorph bony fish which is traditionally the suborder Trachinoidei of the Perciformes.
Lutjanidae, or snappers are a family of perciform fish, mainly marine, but with some members inhabiting estuaries, feeding in fresh water. The family includes about 113 species. Some are important food fish. One of the best known is the red snapper.
Macroramphosidae, the snipefishes and bellowsfishes is a family of oviparous, marine fish which form part of the superfamily Centriscoidea, which is one of the two superfamilies in the suborder Aulostomoidei of the order Syngnathiformes, which includes the seahorses, pipefishes, trumpetfishes and dragonets. It has been considered to be a subfamily of the Centriscidae but Nelson (2016) classified it as a family.
The Gobionellinae are a subfamily of fish which was formerly classified in the family Gobiidae, the gobies, but the 5th Edition of Fishes of the World classifies the subfamily as part of the family Oxudercidae. Members of Gobionellinae mostly inhabit estuarine and freshwater habitats; the main exception is the genus Gnatholepis, which live with corals in marine environments. The subfamily is distributed in tropical and temperate regions around the world with the exception of the northeastern Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Ponto-Caspian region. It includes around 370 species and 55 genera: Wikipedia articles about genera list about 389 species.
The Atlantic mudskipper is a species of mudskipper native to fresh, marine and brackish waters of the tropical Atlantic coasts of Africa, including most offshore islands, through the Indian Ocean and into the western Pacific Ocean to Guam. The Greek scientific name Periophthalmus barbarus is named after the eyes that provide the Atlantic mudskipper with a wide field of vision. The Atlantic mudskipper is a member of the genus Periophthalmus, which includes oxudercine gobies that have one row of canine-like teeth.
Amblyopinae is a subfamily of elongated mud-dwelling gobies commonly called eel gobies or worm gobies; it has been regarded as a subfamily of the family Gobiidae, while the 5th edition Fishes of the World classifies it as a subfamily of the family Oxudercidae. The members in the subfamily have two dorsal fins that are connected by a membranous structure and their eyes are highly reduced in size. They are usually pink, red, or purple in coloration.
Butidae is a family of sleeper gobies in the order Gobiiformes. The family was formerly classified as a subfamily of the Eleotridae but the 5th Edition of Fishes of the World classifies it as a family in its own right. Molecular phylogenetic analyses have demonstrated that the Butidae are a sister clade to the clade containing the families Gobiidae and Gobionellidae and that the Eleotridae is a sister to both of these clades. This means that the Eloetridae as formerly classified was paraphyletic and that its subfamilies should be raised to the status of families.
The Anabantiformes are an order of freshwater ray-finned fish with two suborders, five families and having at least 207 species. In addition, some authorities expand the order to include the suborder Nandoidei, which includes three families - the Nandidae, Badidae and Pristolepididae - that appear to be closely related to the Anabantiformes. The order, and these three related families, are part of a monophyletic clade which is a sister clade to the Ovalentaria, the other orders in the clade being Synbranchiformes, Carangiformes, Istiophoriformes and Pleuronectiformes. This clade is sometimes referred to as the Carangaria but is left unnamed and unranked in Fishes of the World. This group of fish are found in Asia and Africa, with some species introduced in United States of America.
Periophthalmodon freycineti, the pug-headed mudskipper, is a species of mudskipper from the subfamily Oxudercinae of the gobiiform family Oxudercidae. It distribution extends from the Philippines through eastern Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and northern Queensland. Its habitat is tidal creeks, mud banks and inlets where it is a predator on small fish, crabs and other invertebrates such as insects. The specific name honours the French explorer Louis de Freycinet (1779-1841), the leader of the expedition on which the type was collected.
The Pseudaminae is a subfamily of ray-finned fishes, one of two subfamilies of the family Apogonidae, the cardinalfishes. They are characterised by having large caniform teeth which are placed on the on dentary and premaxillae, by having the lateral line absent or incomplete, by having no scales or if scales are present they are cycloid. One species, Gymnapogon urospilotus, is notable for its larvae being rather large and fast-swimming.
Plesiopinae is one of two subfamilies in the family Plesiopidae, the longfins or roundheads.
Pomacentrinae is one of four subfamilies in the family Pomacentridae which includes the clownfishes and the damselfishes. It is the most diverse of the subfamilies in the Pomacentridae with around 21 genera and approximately 200 species.
Pseudoplesiopinae is a subfamily of the family Pseudochromidae, the dottybacks, it consists of small species of coral-reef inhabiting fish which are distributed throughout the Indo-Pacific.