|Family:|| Oxudercidae |
Oxudercidae is a family of gobies which consists of four subfamilies which were formerly classified under the family Gobiidae. The family is sometimes called the Gobionellidae, but Oxudercidae has priority. The species in this family have a cosmopolitan distribution in temperate and tropical areas and are found in marine and freshwater environments, typically in inshore, euryhaline areas with silt and sand substrates.
The Oxudercidae includes 86 genera, which contain around 600 species. This family has many species which occur in fresh water, and a number of species found on wet beaches and are able to live for a number of days out of water. The family includes the mudskippers, which include species that are able to move over land with quite quickly. They have eyes located on the top of their heads on short stalks. They are capable of elevating or retracting them, and they can see well out of water. One species, Gillichthys mirabilis , usually stays in the water, but surfaces to gulp air when the oxygen levels in the water are low; it holds the air in its buccopharynx, which is highly vacularised to facilitate respiratory exchange.
These subfamilies are included in the Oxudercidae:
The Carangidae are a family of ray-finned fish which includes the jacks, pompanos, jack mackerels, runners, and scads. It is the largest of the six families included within the order Carangiformes. Some authorities classify it as the only family within that order but molecular and anatomical studies indicate that there is a close relationship between this family and the five former Perciform families which make up the Carangiformes.
Amphibious fish are fish that are able to leave water for extended periods of time. About 11 distantly related genera of fish are considered amphibious. This suggests that many fish genera independently evolved amphibious traits, a process known as convergent evolution. These fish use a range of terrestrial locomotory modes, such as lateral undulation, tripod-like walking, and jumping. Many of these locomotory modes incorporate multiple combinations of pectoral, pelvic and tail fin movement.
Mudskippers are amphibious fish, presently included in the family Oxudercidae, in the subfamily Oxudercinae. There are 32 living species of mudskipper.
The longfins, also known as roundheads or spiny basslets, are a family, Plesiopidae, which were formerly placed in the order Perciformes but are now regarded as being incertae sedis in the subseries Ovalentaria in the clade Percomorpha. They are elongated fishes, found in the Indian Ocean and western Pacific Ocean.
The sandperches are a family, Pinguipedidae, of fishes in the percomorph order Trachiniformes. Sandperches are benthic fish which normally occur over sand or rubble substrates in shallow seas. They are found off the coasts of South America, South Africa and in the Indo-Pacific as far east as Japan. The family contains a few species which are used by humans for food.
Trachiniformes is an order of percomorph bony fish which is considered by some authorities to be the suborder Trachinoidei of the Perciformes.
The Gobiiformes are an order of fish that includes the gobies and their relatives. The order, which was previously considered a suborder of Perciformes, is made up of about 2,211 species that are divided between seven families. Phylogenetic relationships of the Gobiiformes have been elucidated using molecular data. Gobiiforms are primarily small species that live in marine water, but roughly 10% of these species inhabit fresh water. This order is composed chiefly of benthic or burrowing species; like many other benthic fishes, most gobiiforms do not have a gas bladder or any other means of controlling their buoyancy in water, so they must spend most of their time on or near the bottom.
Snappers are a family of perciform fish, Lutjanidae, mainly marine, but with some members inhabiting estuaries, feeding in fresh water. The family includes about 113 species. Some are important food fish. One of the best known is the red snapper.
Macroramphosidae, the snipefishes and bellowsfishes is a family of oviparous, marine fish which form part of the superfamily Centriscoidea, which is one of the two superfamilies in the suborder Aulostomoidei of the order Syngnathiformes, which includes the seahorses, pipefishes, trumpetfishes and dragonets. It has been considered to be a subfamily of the Centriscidae but Nelson (2016) classified it as a family.
The Gobionellinae are a subfamily of fish which was formerly classified in the family Gobiidae, the gobies, but the 5th Edition of Fishes of the World classifies the subfamily as part of the family Oxudercidae. Members of Gobionellinae mostly inhabit estuarine and freshwater habitats; the main exception is the genus Gnatholepis, which live with corals in marine environments. The subfamily is distributed in tropical and temperate regions around the world with the exception of the northeastern Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Ponto-Caspian region. It includes around 370 species and 55 genera: Wikipedia articles about genera list about 389 species.
Amblyopinae is a subfamily of elongated mud-dwelling gobies commonly called eel gobies or worm gobies; it has been regarded as a subfamily of the family Gobiidae, while the 5th edition Fishes of the World classifies it as a subfamily of the family Oxudercidae. The members in the subfamily have two dorsal fins that are connected by a membranous structure and their eyes are highly reduced in size. They are usually pink, red, or purple in coloration.
Biendongella is a genus of fish in the subfamily Gobionellinae native to the South China Sea. The generic name is formed by adding the diminutive suffix ella to the Vietnamese name for the South China Sea, Bien Dong.
Butidae is a family of sleeper gobies in the order Gobiiformes. The family was formerly classified as a subfamily of the Eleotridae but the 5th Edition of Fishes of the World classifies it as a family in its own right. Molecular phylogenetic analyses have demonstrated that the Butidae are a sister clade to the clade containing the families Gobiidae and Gobionellidae and that the Eleotridae is a sister to both of these clades. This means that the Eloetridae as formerly classified was paraphyletic and that its subfamilies should be raised to the status of families.
The Anabantiformes are an order of freshwater ray-finned fish with two suborders, four families and having at least 207 species., other authorities expand the order to include the suborder Nandoidei whch includes three families which appear to closely related to the Anabantiformes, the Nandidae, Badidae and Pristolepididae. The order, and the three related families that the 5th edition of Fishes of the World classify as incertae sedis, are part of a monophyletic clade which is a sister clade to the Ovalentaria, the other orders in the clade being Synbranchiformes, Carangiformes, Istiophoriformes and Pleuronectiformes. This clade is sometimes referred to as the Carangaria but is left unnamed and unranked in Fishes of the World. This group of fish are found in Asia and Africa, with some species introduced in United States of America.
Periophthalmodon freycineti, the pug-headed mudskipper, is a species of mudskipper from the subfamily Oxudercinae of the gobiiform family Oxudercidae. It distribution extends from the Philippines through eastern Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and northern Queensland. Its habitat is tidal creeks, mud banks and inlets where it is a predator on small fish, crabs and other invertebrates such as insects. The specific name honours the French explorer Louis de Freycinet (1779-1841), the leader of the expedition on which the type was collected.
Periophthalmodon septemradiatus is a species of mudskipper found along tropical shorelines of the eastern Indian Ocean where it occurs in marine, brackish and fresh waters from India to Indonesia. It is found along in estuaries as well as in the rivers.
The Pseudaminae is a subfamily of ray-finned fishes, one of two subfamilies of the family Apogonidae, the cardinalfishes. They are characterised by having large caniform teeth which are placed on the on dentary and premaxillae, by having the lateral line absent or incomplete, by having no scales or if scales are present they are cycloid. One species, Gymnapogon urospilotus, is notable for its larvae being rather large and fast-swimming.
Plesiopinae is one of two subfamilies in the family Plesiopidae, the logfins or roundheads.
Pomacentrinae is one of four subfamilies in the family Pomacentridae which includes the clownfishes and the damselfishes. It is the most diverse of the subfamilies in the Pomacentridae with around 21 genera and approximately 200 species.
Pseudoplesiopinae is a subfamily of the family Pseudochromidae, the dottybacks, it consists of small species of coral-reef inhabiting fish which are distributed throughout the Indo-Pacific.
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