|Hawaii Territorial Guard|
|Type||State defense force|
|Role||Military reserve force|
|Equipment||Springfield 1903 rifle|
|Civilian Leadership||Governor Joseph Poindexter|
The Hawaii Territorial Guard (Hawaiian : O na La kiai) was the state defense force of Hawaii during World War II. As a result of the National Guard of Hawaii being federalized for the duration of the war, the Hawaii Territorial Guard was created to serve as the stateside replacement for the National Guard. During the war, it was the sole military force available to the Governor of Hawaii as its captain general to use in defense of the state. Unlike the National Guard, as a state defense force, the Hawaii Territorial Guard was not subject to federalization or deployment outside of the borders of Hawaii, but rather answered only to the governor.
The National Guard and the state defense forces both trace their roots to the state militias which made up the majority of the United States Armed Forces prior to the implementation of the Militia Act of 1903 and the subsequent creation of the modern National Guard of the United States as a federal reserve force. The first militia in Hawaii was the Honolulu Rifles, composed of non-native Hawaiians, which was created in 1884.After state militias were reorganized into the National Guard, the remaining Hawaiian militia units were reorganized into the National Guard.
The Hawaii Territorial Guard was created by Governor Joseph B. Poindexter, who ordered the mobilization of a Territorial Guard around 10:00 a.m. on December 7, 1941 during the attack on Pearl Harbor.
Immediately after ordering the activation of the Territorial Guard, Governor Poindexter began the task of creating it. The University of Hawaii Reserve Officer's Training Corps was activated and assembled at the University of Hawaii campus and immediately drafted into the Territorial Guard, alongside various high school JROTC students.
At 11:00 a.m. on the same day, all members of the American Legion were also called to duty via radio, thus adding between three hundred and four hundred members to the Territorial Guard ranks, whose membership would reach a strength of 89 officers and 1,254 enlisted men by December 31, 1941.
In January 1942, due to suspicions of their loyalty, all ethnic Japanese members were dismissed from the Hawaii Territorial Guard.Hawaii Territorial Guardsmen who had been discharged petitioned General Delos Carleton Emmons, the Military Governor of Hawaii, to be allowed contribute to the war effort in another way, and in February they were assigned to a regiment of engineers as a 160-man auxiliary unit called the Varsity Victory Volunteers. After the temporary shutdown of the unit, the Hawaii Territorial Guard was immediately reactivated without its ethnic Japanese members and began recruiting replacements.
The Hawaii Territorial Guard was tasked with guarding against a potential paratrooper assault by the Japanese in the immediate aftermath of the Pearl Harbor attack.After the immediate threat had passed, they were assigned to guard key buildings and infrastructure against sabotage.
Members of the Hawaii Territorial Guard were issued M1903 Springfield rifles.
The Hawaii Territorial Guard was disbanded in 1947.
Several other militias composed of civilians but given limited recognition and training by the United States government existed in Hawaii during World War II, including the following private militia units:
State defense forces are permitted by the federal government under Title 32, Section 109 of the United States Code.Currently, 23 states and the territory of Puerto Rico maintain active state defense forces. Hawaii state law also recognizes the Hawaii state defense force as a component of the militia of the state. Therefore, the existing legal framework makes it possible for the Governor of Hawaii or the state legislative to order the reactivation of a Hawaii state defense force in the future, inheriting the lineage and traditions of the old HTG.
In the United States, state defense forces are military units that operate under the sole authority of a state government. State defense forces are authorized by state and federal law and are under the command of the governor of each state.
A naval militia in the United States is a reserve military organization administered under the authority of a state government. It is often composed of Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard reservists, retirees and volunteers. They are distinguishable from the U.S. Coast Guard Auxiliary which is a federally chartered civilian volunteer component of the U.S. Coast Guard and falls under the command of the Commandant of the Coast Guard through the Chief Director of the Auxiliary, and the United States Maritime Service and United States Merchant Marine, both of which are federal maritime services.
The Alabama State Defense Force (ASDF) is the state provided guard of the State of Alabama allowed by the Constitution of Alabama, The Code of Alabama and Executive Order. It has an authorized strength of 1,000 members and is organized on the United States Army structural pattern. The ASDF is under the control of the Governor of Alabama, as the state's Commander in Chief, and comes under the authority of The Adjutant General (TAG) of Alabama. The ASDF is an adjunct, volunteer, augmenting force to the Alabama National Guard, and it is not federally recognized. Currently, the ASDF is inactive awaiting reorganization by the Alabama National Guard.
The Hawaii National Guard consists of the Hawaii Army National Guard and the Hawaii Air National Guard. The Constitution of the United States specifically charges the National Guard with dual federal and state missions. In fact, the National Guard is the only United States military force empowered to function in a state status. Those functions range from limited actions during non-emergency situations to full scale law enforcement of martial law when local law enforcement officials can no longer maintain civil control. The National Guard may be called into federal service in response to a call by the President or Congress.
The New Mexico National Guard is part of the armed forces of the U.S. state of New Mexico. It comprises the New Mexico Army National Guard and the New Mexico Air National Guard. The history of the New Mexico National Guard is unique; it has existed since the 1500s under many names, from the time of the Spanish and Mexican established Nuevo México to the present.
The Hawaii Army National Guard is a component of the United States Army and the United States National Guard. Nationwide, the Army National Guard comprises approximately one half of the US Army's available combat forces and approximately one third of its support organization. National coordination of various state National Guard units are maintained through the National Guard Bureau.
The Wisconsin State Defense Force (WSDF) is the currently inactive state defense force of the State of Wisconsin authorized by Wisconsin law. As a state defense force, the Wisconsin State Defense Force, alongside the Wisconsin National Guard, is organized under the Wisconsin Department of Military Affairs as a part of the military forces of Wisconsin. However, unlike the National Guard, the State Defense Force is a purely state-controlled organization and cannot be deployed outside the state of Wisconsin. When any part of the Wisconsin National Guard is called into service of the United States, the adjutant general may recruit volunteers to the WSDF to serve within the borders of Wisconsin.
The Hawaii Air National Guard is the aerial militia of the State of Hawaii, United States of America. It is, along with the Hawaii Army National Guard, an element of the Hawaii National Guard.
The Arkansas State Guard was the official state defense force of the state of Arkansas during World War II. The Arkansas State Guard was created to fulfill the state missions of the Arkansas National Guard while the National Guard was deployed abroad during World War II. As a military unit trained and funded solely by the state, it was immune to federal activation and deployment, unlike the National Guard. As a part of the official militia of the state of Arkansas, it traces its roots back to the militias which fell under state authority prior to the Militia Act of 1903. The Arkansas State Guard is currently inactive following deactivation after the end of World War II; however, the legal framework for a state defense force still exists, making future reactivation of the Arkansas State Guard by the Arkansas General Assembly legally permissible.
The Oregon Civil Defense Force (ORCDF), formerly known as the Oregon State Defense Force, is the official state defense force of Oregon and one of the three components of Oregon State's organized militia, with Oregon's Army and Air National Guard (ORNG) making up the other two. It serves as a state-level military and emergency services reserve force.
The Kansas State Guard was the official state defense force of the state of Kansas during each of the world wars. The unit was first created during World War I, and was later reactivated during World War II. When the Kansas National Guard was federalized and deployed during each of the world wars, the state of Kansas was forced to raise and maintain its own military force in order to protect against saboteurs, quell riots, and perform other duties which would normally fall to the National Guard. Unlike the National Guard, which could be federalized and deployed abroad, the State Guard was funded and equipped solely by the state and as such was immune to deployment. The Kansas State Guard is authorized under Kansas law. In 2007, the Kansas Legislature considered a bill which would create a modern Kansas State Defense Force. The bill did not pass.
The Delaware State Guard is the currently inactive state defense force of the state of Delaware, which was active during both World War I and World War II. As the official militia of the state, the Delaware State Guard was created with the intent of acting as a stateside replacement for the Delaware National Guard while the National Guard units were deployed abroad.
The Pennsylvania State Guard is the currently inactive official state defense force of the state of Pennsylvania, which was active during World War II and the Korean War. The unit was organized as a home guard composed of volunteers who were trained and organized as parallel to the state’s National Guard. As a part of Pennsylvania's official militia, the Pennsylvania State Guard was trained, organized, and funded by the state of Pennsylvania, answered to the governor, and could not be federalized or deployed abroad.
The Nebraska State Guard (NSG) is the currently inactive state defense force of the state of Nebraska, which was activated during both World War II and the Vietnam War. As a state defense force, the NSG served on as a component of the organized militia of Nebraska, serving as reservists who trained periodically but could be called up during an emergency; however, unlike the Nebraska National Guard, the Nebraska State Guard could not be federalized or deployed outside the state. Rather, when the National Guard was deployed, the purpose of the State Guard was to assume the stateside duties of the National Guard.
The Louisiana State Guard (LSG) is the official state defense force of the state of Louisiana. The LSG was first created during World War II. As a state defense force, the LSG is a part of the state militia of Louisiana, and can serve as a stateside replacement of the Louisiana National Guard while the National Guard is deployed. Unlike the Louisiana National Guard, the Louisiana State Guard is solely under state control, and cannot be federalized or deployed outside of Louisiana, guaranteeing additional soldiers will always be available to the governor to deploy in response to crises.
The Maine State Guard was the state defense force of the state of Maine during World War I, World War II, and the Vietnam War. As a state defense force, the State Guard served as a stateside replacement for the Maine National Guard when the National Guard was federalized. Like the National Guard, the State Guard was a reserve military force composed of members who held full-time civilian jobs and periodically met for drills, unless called into active service by the governor. However, unlike the National Guard, as a state defense force, the Maine State Guard was solely a state military force, which was immune from federalization and could not be deployed outside the State of Maine.
The Utah State Defense Force (USDF), formerly known as the Utah State Guard, is the currently unorganized state defense force of the state of Utah. The USDF, along with the Utah National Guard, is part of the organized militia of Utah. However, unlike the National Guard, the State Defense Force is by law solely under the command of the Governor of Utah and cannot be federalized or deployed outside the borders of Utah. Although inactive, Utah's State Defense Force Act allows the Governor to reactivate the USDF through executive action.
The New Hampshire State Guard (NHSG) is the currently unorganized state defense force of New Hampshire. The purpose of the State Guard is to augment or replace the New Hampshire National Guard by assuming the National Guard’s stateside duties when any part of the National Guard is federalized. However, unlike the National Guard, the State Guard is a purely state-level military force which cannot be federalized or deployed outside the state of New Hampshire. The NHSG is a component of the organized militia of New Hampshire.
The South Dakota State Guard is the currently inactive state defense force of South Dakota. The State Guard is recognized as a military force separate from the South Dakota National Guard. Unlike the National Guard, the State Guard is a purely state-level military force under the command of the Governor of South Dakota, and cannot be federalized or deployed outside the borders of the state. The South Dakota State Guard was active during World War I, World War II, and the Vietnam War and provided military protection to the state of South Dakota while the National Guard was in federal service.
The Rhode Island State Guard is the currently inactive state defense force of Rhode Island. As a state defense force, the Rhode Island State Guard served as a state military unit which assumed the stateside duties of the Rhode Island National Guard when the National Guard was in federal service. However, unlike the National Guard, the State Guard, when organized, answers solely to the Governor of Rhode Island and by law cannot be federalized or deployed outside the borders of Rhode Island.